Muscles that assist the diaphragm in forced inspiration to elevate the ribs and

Muscles that assist the diaphragm in forced

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Muscles that assist the diaphragm in forced inspiration to elevate the ribs and expand the cavities horizontally. Internal intercostals and abdominal muscles Forced expiration. (i.e., coughing). The mechanics can be observed in Figures 10-15 and 10.16
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Foster P a g e | 6 LABEL the openings on the diaphragm: aortic hiatus, esophageal hiatus, caval opening, central tendon
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Foster P a g e | 7 HISTOLOGY OF THE BRONCHIAL TREE Structures Notes Trachea Hyaline cartilage The type of cartilage that constitutes the tracheal cartilage. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium The epithelial layer of the trachea. The cilia move mucus up the mucociliary escalator. Goblet cells The mucus producing cells found in the epithelial layer. Lungs and Bronchioles Bronchi Identify the cartilage and you know it is a bronchus. Bronchioles Without any associated cartilage, but with smooth muscle, you should see the bronchioles. Pulmonary blood vessel The lung is highly vascular. You should be able to identify the pulmonary blood vessel with numerous red blood cells. Alveolus Pockets in the lung where air exchange occurs.
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Foster P a g e | 8 Trachea Bronchiole and Lungs Alveoli
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Foster P a g e | 9 RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE AND CELLS OF THE LUNG Structures Notes Type I Pneumocyte Simple squamous epithelial cell making the wall of the alveolus Type II Pneumocyte The cell responsible for the production of surfactant. Respiratory membrane The Type pneumocyte, basement membrane and the endothelial cell of the capillary. Location of where gas exchange occurs. The wall of the alveolus. Pulmonary capillary Basement membrane Part of the respiratory membrane. Endothelial cell Capillary blood vessel cell. Elastic fibers The fibers responsible for the recoil of the lung. Pulmonary venule Oxygenated blood returning to the left atrium Pulmonary arteriole Deoxygenated blood coming from the right ventricle. (WILL EXAMINE THIS MODEL IN THE LAB)
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Foster P a g e | 10 PRENATAL CIRCULATION Structures Notes Placenta A temporary organ that develops on the wall of the uterus. The placenta transfers gases, nutrients and waste products from the mother’s blood to the umbilical cord. About 30 minutes after giving birth to the baby, the placenta is ejected from the body and is often termed the “afterbirth”. Umbilical cord A conduit between the fetus and the placenta of the mother. It contains 2 umbilical arteries, 1 umbilical vein, and Whorton’s jelly . Whorton’s jelly is a mucopolysaccharide gel-like substance that is similar to the vitreous humor of the eye. Upon clamping of the umbilical cord to helps to collapse the umbilical arteries and veins. Umbilical arteries The umbilical arteries have deoxygenated blood and waste returning from the fetus to the placenta.
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  • Spring '19
  • Umbilical vein

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