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Considered cured after a 10 year cancer free period

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- considered cured after a 10-year cancer-free period Remissio n: no clinical signs or cancer, client may experience several remissions The life expectancy and death rate for specific cancers vary Chapter 7: Congenital & Genetic Disorders Genetic Control - Genetic information for each cell is stored on chromosomes, of which there are 23 pairs
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in each human cell. -22 pairs are autosomes and are numbered when arranged by size and shaped in a diagnostic graphic termed karyotype and the 23 rd pair has sex chromosomes; males have XY females XX Genotype: -actual information carried by the individual -All cells except the gametes of an individual have the same genotype -Not all genes are expressed in all cells Phenotype: -expression of genes -Appearance of the individual’s characteristics Congenial Disorders -Disorders present at birth : include inherited or developmental disorders -Inherited disorders may be due to- single gene expression, chromosomal defect, or polygenic expression -Single-gene disorders : trait controlled by one set of alleles, and transmitted to subsequent generation -Chromosomal abnormalities : usually from error during meiosis, and non-disjunction or translocation -Teratogenic agents : agents that cause damage during embryonic or fetal development -Multifactorial disorders : large number or disorders are this type; often have pattern of familial inheritance, and environmental component -Other congenital or developmental disorders: result from premature birth, or difficult labor and delivery ex: cerebral palsy Single-gene disorders: classified by inheritance patterns the major groups are recessive, dominant, or x-linked recessive. This is where a single gene controls a specific function ex: color blindness -May also have systemic effects ex: cystic fibrosis, Tay-sachs, or PKU Autosomal Recessive Disorders: both parents must pass on this allele for these disorders. The parent may be heterozygous and unaffected but still a carrier -Male and female children are affected equally -Homozygous recessive child has the disorders -Heterozygous child: will have no clinical signs of the disease but is a carrier Examples: cystic fibrosis, PKU, and Tay-Sachs disease Autosomal Dominant Disorders: inheritance of one allele causes the disorders; only one parents needs to carry the allele -There aren’t any carriers; if you’re unaffected you won’t transmit it -Some conditions may become evident later in life: allele for the disorder may have been passed on to next generation before diagnosis of disease in parent ( delayed lethal genotype) Examples: adult polycystic kidney disease, Huntington disease, familial hypercholesterolemia, and Marfan syndrome X-Linked Recessive Disorders : carried on the X chromosome
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-Manifested in heterozygous males lacking the matching unaffected gene on the Y chromosomes -Heterozygous females are carriers -Homozygous recessive females may be affected -Inheritance may appear to “skip generations” Examples: Duchene muscular dystrophy, and classic hemophilia X-Linked Dominant Disorder
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