55. 56. Wagner Act - officially known as the National Labor Relations Act - gives employees the right to get together and collectively bargain in the form of unions. The Wagner Act is the most important labor law enacted in the United States, designed to eliminate employer's interference with the organization of workers into unions. The Wagner Act officially establishes the right for employees to form unions, requires employers to bargain with such unions fairly, and prohibits unfair labor practices such as firing employees for joining unions. 57. 58. Taft-Hartley Act - balanced the power between labor and management by declaring closed-shop illegal, and forbidding jurisdictional strikes and secondary boycotts. Closed-shop is where the company hires only union members. 59. 60. Landrum-Griffen Act provided for the regulation of internal union affairs, including the regulation and control of union funds, and it provided a bill of rights for union members. It attempted to eliminate some of the U business activities going on due to dishonest union officials and leadership. 61. 62. Certification is where the National Labor Relations Board officially recognizes a union as representative of a certain group of employees. Certification requires the union to win a representation election by getting over 50% of the voting employees' votes. 63. 64. Mediation is where a third party tries to help two parties resolve a dispute. The third party is known as a mediator. 65. 66. Grapevine - an integral part of a company's communication process, even though it is not part of the formal channels. Although grapevines have traditionally gotten a rap for being rumor mills churning out unreliable information, studies have shown that a vast majority of the information is accurate. Therefore, it is worthwhile for those in management to take note of it. Information usually moves swiftly throughout the grapevine, so a manager will benefit from always being tuned in to information that is circulating. 67. The grapevine is the best-known type of informal communication and is also known as the "rumor mill." The grapevine is inevitable. It cannot be eliminated, but a manager who understands the grapevine can effectively use it towards the organization's goals. Keeping the subordinates well informed can reduce the amount of false information generated through the grapevine. 68. 69. Two Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - Isabel Myers and her mother Katherine Briggs developed a model regarding the differences in the way that people make decisions. MBTI is based on psychologist Carl Jung's studies on
psychological type. The MBTI, is a tool designed to determine an individual's mental and emotional preferences for dealing with common issues, and, likewise for understanding preferences of their coworkers. It consists of 126 items which help determine a person's problem solving type. It results in two facts--the way a person perceives information, and the way he makes decisions.
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