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Until after WWII, France and Britain were quantitatively and qualitatively more involved in the Orient2."Since WWII America has dominated the Orient, and approaches it as France and Britain once did." (p. 4)3.Orientalism is originally a mainly British and French cultural enterprise extendinginto:■The imagination■The whole of India and the Levant■Biblical texts and lands■The spice trade■Colonial armies and administrators■Scholars, oriental "experts"■An array of "oriental" ideas including Oriental despotism, splendor, cruelty, sensuality■Oriental sects, philosophies, and wisdoms re-packaged for European use●The "Orient" is man-made1.Three qualifications to the statement that the "Orient" and the "Occident" are man-made regions■There are cultures and nations located in the East:■Said's study will not treat that reality, as Hartog did with respect to the Scythians, as Greenblatt did with respect to the Americans, Said will not compare the construction by the West of this "other" with any "real" Orient■The creation of the Orient is not purely an exercise of imagination; it is created out of relations of power■The Orient was "Orientalized" (created as the Orient we know) because it was in a position of weakness vis-a-vis a dominant West■Orientalism is not a structure of lies and myths; it is not a mere European fantasy about the East:■Orientalism is "a created body of theory and practice in which, for many generations, there has been a considerable material investment." (p. 6)■Said thinks Orientalism is more "valuable as a sign of European-Atlantic power over the Orient" than a truthful or scholarly discourse about the Orient. (p. 6)●Hegemony (need to know this term)1.According to Antonio Gramsci society is divided into:■Civil society -- voluntary or non-coercive affiliations (schools, families, unions)■Political society -- dominating state institutions (army, police, central bureaucracy like taxation)2.Culture operates in civil society where ideas, institutions, and ppl influence through "consent"
■"In any society…cultural life in the industrial West." (p. 7)■Hegemony is the predomination of specific cultural forms and the influence of specific ideas3.Cultural hegemony works to give strength and durability to Orientalist constructions■It identifies as "us" Europeans in contrast to all "those" non-Europeans4.