Sources Johnson and Andersen 2012 and Section 25 of this report 28 GLOBELICS

Sources johnson and andersen 2012 and section 25 of

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Sources: Johnson and Andersen (2012) and Section 2.5 of this report. 28 GLOBELICS THEMATIC REVIEW
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Low-carbon development is defined occasionally in ways that fall short of the notion of sustainable development. Under the definition provided by Urban and Nordensvärd above (2013, p. 7), low- carbon development is – strictly speaking – con- sistent with transgressing all the planetary bound- aries except climate change. However, for the reasons outlined in this chapter, the interdepen- dencies between related environmental problems should be acknowledged explicitly. The notion of low-carbon development works primarily as a fo- cusing device, directing the attention toward what is probably the most immediate and serious en- vironmental threat, but it should not replace the notion of sustainable development. We define low-carbon development as structural change that simultaneously improves living con- ditions in low- and middle-income countries and helps to mitigate climate change without adverse effects for other planetary boundaries (fig. 2). Engaging in low-carbon development means that innovation needs to take a new course that supports the shift to a ‘green techno-economic paradigm’ (Freeman, 1996, p. 38). It is more about the direction of innovation than about the rate of innovation. The green transformation will require Fig. 2. Defining low-carbon development – an illustration Climate Change Low Carbon International Mitigation and Development Development Adaptation Source: Modified from Urban and Nordensvärd (2013). LOW-CARBON INNOVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 29
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major changes in production and consumption across a range of technological spheres, not the least energy, transport, and construction. It will be a process of ‘creative destruction’ (Schumpeter, 2010 [1942]; Bergek et al., 2013) in the original sense of the term: existing economic systems have to be destructed while new and more environmen-tally sound ones are created in their place. This report uses a systems perspective to the transformational challenges. The innovation system concept was developed in the late 1980s by schol- ars in Europe (Freeman & Lundvall, 1988; Lund- vall, 1992) and the United States (Nelson, 1993). These scholars agreed that in order to understand how learning and innovation take place, it is crucial to understand the interaction between organisa- tions at the level of the national ‘system’. Since the 1980s, our understanding of the systemic nature of innovation has progressed dramatically. Over the last ten years, the systems concept has become used widely in studies of learning and innovation in de-veloping countries (Lundvall, 2009; Lundvall et al., 2006; Malerba & Mani, 2009; Kraemer-Mbula & Wamae, 2010). Since the emergence of the innovation system concept, research into systems has taken two dif-ferent perspectives; the first adopted a narrow fo-cus, linking innovation to science and technology. The second, and broader, perspective encompasses learning, innovation, and competence building at different levels of aggregation; it includes expe-rience-based as well as science-based innovation. Narrow definitions of the
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