Justice and home affairs 35 please explain emergence

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Justice and Home Affairs 35. Please, explain emergence and development of the Justice and Home Affairs, problems and concerns connected with this project. 36. Please, describe Schengen Agreement, problems and concerns connected with this project. Lectures given by European Commission employees from Representation of the EC in Wrocław 1. The problem with refugees and immigrants in the European Union. Whether Poland should accept refugees? Pros and cons. 2. Labor mobility in the European Union 19 . Types of appropriations 1. Compulsory and non-compulsory expenditure 2. Administrative and operational appropriations 3. Commitment appropriations/Payment appropriations 4. Differentiated appropriations Non-differentiated appropriations Compulsory Non-compulsory Compulsory expenditure = Council - Common agriculture policy - International agreements -Administration (excluding salaries) - All other expenditure Non-compulsory expenditure = Parliament Administrative v operational The traditional budget structure, part A covering administrative resources part B covering operational expenditure The Activity Based Budgeting resources allocation by activity Advantages of ABB: _ COHERENCE in the translation of political priorities _ TRANSPARENCY in the allocation of resources _ DECENTRALIZATION in managing resources
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_ ACCOUNTABILITY of managers Commitment Payment CA = Commitment appropriations - The value of LEGAL COMMITMENTS (contracts or grant agreements) the Commission is authorised to sign during the budget year PA = Payment appropriations - The value of PAYMENTS due to be paid during the budget year, on the basis of the legal commitments signed the same year or in previous years Differentiated Non-differentiated DA = Differentiated appropriations - Payments possible over the life-time of the project - Policy implementation : operational expenditure - Money made available annuall NDA = Non-differentiated appropriations - Annual expenditure including all administrative expenditure (+ the Guarantee Section of the EAGGF) - Payments made year N or N+1 20. Please explain the problem of Institutional Asymmetry of the Economic and Monetary Union Developed monetary union • Policy making to supranational institution (ECB) • NB Through positive integration – Less developed economic union • Policy making kept at national level • NB Through negative integration 21. Evolution of the project of Economic and Monetary Union from 1970-1992 Key points: – 1969 summit at the Hague _ 1970 Werner Plan • Three stages to EMU by 1980 • Recommended two supranational institutions – (1) Community System for the Central Banks (monetary) – (2) Centre of Decision for Economic Policy(macroeconomic) – Most proposals adopted but integration stalled • (1) Conflicting visions on reaching EMU • (2) Changing international situation – Bretton Woods Agreement ended in 1971 _ “snake” Relaunch of EMU in late 1980s – 1979 European Monetary System (EMS) • For all member states – Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) part of EMS • UK not original member: joined 1991; left 16th Sep. 1992 • Italian currency given room to fluctuate: ±2.5% _ ±6%
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