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tourism must‘‘capture’’the composition—or components—of the tourism system, as well as the keyprocesses and outcomes that occur within tourism. These processes and outcomes include the veryessence of tourism, the travel experience, and the supporting means by which tourism is madepossible. Figure 1.2 attempts to describe the complexity of the relationships among the manycomponents of the tourism phenomenon.The TouristThe very heart of the tourism phenomenon model is unequivocally thetouristsand the travelexperiences that they seek when visiting a tourism destination. In order for a destination to providestimulating, high-quality experiences, it is critical that both policy makers and managers be able tounderstand tourists’motivation for pleasure travel, as well as the multiple factors that inﬂuence theirselection of a destination, their mode of travel, and their ultimate choice among the myriad activitiesthat may fulfill their travel needs. It is only when we understand the tourist as fully as possible that wecan proceed to develop the facilities, events, activities, and programs that will distinguish a givendestination, thus making it uniquely attractive to the tourist.Natural Resources and EnvironmentA fundamental dimension of the model—indeed, the very basis of much tourism—is the naturalresources and environment component. Any given destination is primarily and unchangeablycharacterized by itsphysiography(the nature and appearance of its landscape) and itsclimate(the kind of weather it has over a period of years; i.e., the conditions of heat and cold, moisture andTourism is engaging inwonderful, fun, familyexperiences while onvacation. Visiting aninteractive zoological parksuch as Jungle Island andenjoying an encounter withlorikeets is a memorableexperience.Photo courtesy ofJungle Island.Components of Tourism and Tourism ManagementE9
dryness, and wind). Finally, the third component of the natural environment is people. In the case ofpeople, we must distinguish between two very important categories of individuals: (1) those who‘‘belong’’to the destination (its residents), and (2) those who are current or potential visitors to thedestination (the tourism market).The Built EnvironmentAnother dimension of the tourism phenomenon is thebuilt environmentthat has been created byhumans. This built environmentfirst includes the culture of the residents of the host region. Asdiscussed in Chapter 10, the culture of a people reﬂects many dimensions of its past development andits current way of life.Cultureis a very permanent characteristic of a destination, and one that cannot(and should not) be changed simply to enhance tourism development.