Risk is defined as an alternative decision or an attribute reflecting the

Risk is defined as an alternative decision or an

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its demand (Herrero & Pratt, 1998). Risk is defined as an alternative decision or an attribute reflecting the variance of its possible outcomes (Gefen et al. , 2002). The inclusion of high perceived risk in tourism decisions decreases consumers’ trust, and as a consequence minimises the purchasing potential (Lee, 2014). The development of trustworthiness in tourism decisions is considerably affected by branding aspects, as they seem to be the main factors involved in minimising the perceived risks involved (Pappas, 2017). As a result, the ‘brand trust’ of the destination and/or event can determine the extent of its selection by potential consumers and ultimately its overall success (Chomvilailuka & Srisomyong, 2015). An example of crisis communications can be derived from the Paris case, as presented at the end of the previous chapter. A year after the 2015 Paris terrorist strikes several commemoration events (most of them dealing with popular culture aspects) have been organised in the city. These events were (McQueen, 2017): (i) a poetry reading at the Institut du Monde Arabe (ii) memorial plaques unveiled near the sites of the attacks (iii) a rally at the town hall of the 11th arrondissement (iv) a round table on the theme of memory (v) a special performance of the play Djihad, followed by a debate (vi) Lanterns released in eastern Paris (vii) a memorial concert at the Bus Palladium (viii) Various TV specials about the attacks (ix) Candles on windowsills, and (x) an exhibition of memorial objects. Two years after the 2015
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10 Paris terrorist strikes more events have been organised, such as a ceremony led by the French president Emmanuel Macron to commemorate the victims (Xinhua, 2017). However, destination image is also affected by the perceptions of the host community and the stakeholders involved in the tourism process. As Presenza et al. (2013) suggest policy makers should implement internal marketing promoting the involvement of residents and stakeholders in decision making since this can strengthen the destination branding. Thus, crisis marketing communications don’t only need to be addressed in their internal audience but also include it for its formulation and development. Tourism destinations should strengthen their crisis management centres not only in operational level but also in communication and promotion initiatives (Figure 2). As Pappas (2008) suggests, it is imperative for crisis decision making to create operational groups focusing on the implementation and development of risk management. The groups should include scientists, stakeholders, tourism industry, incoming tourism (tour operating) and host community representatives, as well as state advisors (intelligence, security) and peripheral authorities. A process of participatory democracy can increase the adaptability and efficiency of both, crisis operations and marketing communications. Considering the internal crisis marketing, the inclusion of locals and stakeholders activated in the region, can increase the direct positive output of crisis communications, further strengthen and more efficiently protect the destination image and branding during the period of turmoil, as well as decrease the pressure from competitive destinations.
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