Criminology Lecture Notes3

Negative something is taken away something aversive

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Negative (something is taken away) Something aversive is removed Something valued is removed . This is a social learning theory – rewards that individual receives after committing a criminal activity will be social rewards . Social reward = individual burglarizing a house and bragging to his robber friends . Receiving social reward/positive reinforcement makes it more likely that they will commit the crime again . Negative reinforcement = . Positive punishment = jail time . Negative punishment = money taken away (traffic violation, etc.) . Most often, negative punishment is informal and social . Differential reinforcement . “refers to the balance of anticipated or actual rewards and punishments that follow or are consequences of behavior” . If an individual is punished more than he is rewarded, he will stop and discontinue engaging in criminal activity . If an individual is rewarded more than he is punished, then he will continue . Why do people engage in differential associations? . Not a matter of the probability that one person will fall into a gang . Peer pressure . We have to recognize that juveniles in particular have a lot of freedom to choose who they associate with . Why do people choose to associate with delinquents/criminals . Because the little boy chooses to associate with another group, it is not peer pressure, but rather peer influence . Individual actively chooses who is going to influence his behavior . Why do individuals have a proclivity to associate with bad individuals . Gerald Patterson . Nattering – refusal to give him what he wants – ex. Kid wants ice cream before dinner, and kid knows that he can wear his mom down and get ice cream before dinner . Parent at the start is simply nattering – making empty statements – kid is constantly pestering mommy so the parent Is being positively punished
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(introducing something aversive into the parent’s experience – kid is punishing parent by being such a brat) . Eventually, the parent gives in, so parent is being inept (parent is not teaching child self-control; not controlling the child so child does not learn to defer gratification) – by being inept, the parents’ ineptitude is being negatively reinforced by being a bad parent, by being an indulging parent, the parent can remove an aversive stimuli . Kid learns coercive behavior, kid’s coercive behavior is being positively reinforced – if he nags, he will get his reward . No one will play with kid, so he falls with the bad kids . Selection Effect – kid starts out with some sort of delinquent orientation, thus falls into/finds/selected into some kind of delinquent group . Bad boy, in association with other bad boys, Is positively reinforced for his bad behavior because other kids in the crowd will reward him for doing bad things . Akers does not emphasize selection effect – he emphasizes amplification effects (in associating with a bad crowd, he becomes more and more delinquent because that bad crowd is going to foster further delinquency – more and more probable that one will commit crime .
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