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Jiangxi – south – southwest – north – yanan (shaanxi province, NOT shanxi)Mao rose to power°The First United Front (1923-1927)Warlord Era 1912-1927Yuan Shikai died – no central govWarlords – regional leaders, former military, gangsters – rose to powerTibet, Xinjiang, Mongolia independentMay 4thMovement – students in Tiananmen SquareoResponse to T of Versailles – angry because sent help to France but didn’t get Shandong back from Germ (Japan took instead)KMT & CCP worked together on south to north northern expedition – goal: unify under Jiang JieshioCCP prepare peasantsoKMT wipe out warlords
KMT tries to wipe out all CCP in shanghai by hiring local gangChina reunified, centered at Nanjing°Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere°The Second United Front (1937-1945), Manchukuo, Anti-Japanese War (2ndsino-japanese war, 1938-1945)beforeo1895 – Taiwan ceded to Japan (sino-french war, treaty of Shimonoseki)o1905 – japan dominated southern Manchuria after defeating Russiao1928 – Japanese assassinate warlord of Manchuria zhang zuolino1931 – japan invades Manchuria to make ManchukuoChiang Kaishek’s policy – pacifying the interior before resisting foreignersono point in fighting japan since Japanese firepower superiorochina must be unified to oppose japan1936 – zhang xueliang (son of zhang zuolin, mad about assassination) kidnapped jiang jieshi to force him to cooperate with CCP to resist Japanese1937 – marco polo bridge incident – Japanese attack this bridge in Beijing, start of warKMT lost Beijing & TianjinBattle of shanghai – held off Japanese troopsRape of Nanjing – Japanese capture capital, rape/kill womenJapan secures control of east china, new puppet govKMT retreated from Nanjing to wuhan to Chongqing2ndunited front ended since CCP’s new forth army did not comply with an order to retreat, attacked by KMT troops1941 – japan attacked all colonies in asia (pearl harbor of US, HK of UK, Indonesia of France), bringing those allies into war
oUS supported jiang jieshioUS dropped atom bombs, japan surrendered°“Take-over” (aka re-conversion, chieh-shou 接接) the post-war era of KMTreoccupation late 1945-1946 in Pepper readingManchukuoBeijingShanghaiReplaced Japanese education system with chinese – students had tobe retestedRedoing currency°Chinese Civil War°Korean WarUS did not recognize Mao’s gov – fought opposite each other 1950-1953UN w/US defended south korea – reached Pyongyang in northMao threatened by UN, sent troops to surprise attack UN in KoreaoUN fledChina – campaign to resist America, aid Korea°1stfive-year plan 1952-1957modeled after soviet systempeaceful/successful transition to state ownershiphousehold registration system locked in urban/rural dividepeasants worked in farm collectivesogov decided how much they could keep – rest went to be sold
oworked in small voluntary groups, but when expanded to