Jiangxi south southwest north yanan shaanxi province

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Jiangxi – south – southwest – north – yanan (shaanxi province, NOT shanxi) Mao rose to power ° The First United Front (1923-1927) Warlord Era 1912-1927 Yuan Shikai died – no central gov Warlords – regional leaders, former military, gangsters – rose to power Tibet, Xinjiang, Mongolia independent May 4 th Movement – students in Tiananmen Square o Response to T of Versailles – angry because sent help to France but didn’t get Shandong back from Germ (Japan took instead) KMT & CCP worked together on south to north northern expedition – goal: unify under Jiang Jieshi o CCP prepare peasants o KMT wipe out warlords
KMT tries to wipe out all CCP in shanghai by hiring local gang China reunified, centered at Nanjing ° Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere ° The Second United Front (1937-1945), Manchukuo, Anti-Japanese War (2 nd sino-japanese war, 1938-1945) before o 1895 – Taiwan ceded to Japan (sino-french war, treaty of Shimonoseki) o 1905 – japan dominated southern Manchuria after defeating Russia o 1928 – Japanese assassinate warlord of Manchuria zhang zuolin o 1931 – japan invades Manchuria to make Manchukuo Chiang Kaishek’s policy – pacifying the interior before resisting foreigners o no point in fighting japan since Japanese firepower superior o china must be unified to oppose japan 1936 – zhang xueliang (son of zhang zuolin, mad about assassination) kidnapped jiang jieshi to force him to cooperate with CCP to resist Japanese 1937 – marco polo bridge incident – Japanese attack this bridge in Beijing, start of war KMT lost Beijing & Tianjin Battle of shanghai – held off Japanese troops Rape of Nanjing – Japanese capture capital, rape/kill women Japan secures control of east china, new puppet gov KMT retreated from Nanjing to wuhan to Chongqing 2 nd united front ended since CCP’s new forth army did not comply with an order to retreat, attacked by KMT troops 1941 – japan attacked all colonies in asia (pearl harbor of US, HK of UK, Indonesia of France), bringing those allies into war
o US supported jiang jieshi o US dropped atom bombs, japan surrendered ° “Take-over” (aka re-conversion, chieh-shou 接接 ) the post-war era of KMT reoccupation late 1945-1946 in Pepper reading Manchukuo Beijing Shanghai Replaced Japanese education system with chinese – students had to be retested Redoing currency ° Chinese Civil War ° Korean War US did not recognize Mao’s gov – fought opposite each other 1950- 1953 UN w/US defended south korea – reached Pyongyang in north Mao threatened by UN, sent troops to surprise attack UN in Korea o UN fled China – campaign to resist America, aid Korea ° 1 st five-year plan 1952-1957 modeled after soviet system peaceful/successful transition to state ownership household registration system locked in urban/rural divide peasants worked in farm collectives o gov decided how much they could keep – rest went to be sold
o worked in small voluntary groups, but when expanded to

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