Assimilation can be partial, when there are various options of phonemes, and full, when there is a complete assimilation of articulations.Speaking about the direction of assimilation, they distinguish progressive, regressive and double / mutual assimilation. Progressive assimilation occurs when the previous sound affects the subsequent (stopped, stocks). Regressive assimilation occurs when the subsequent sound affects the preceding (newspaper). Progressive assimilation is much less common than regressive. There are also optional or random assimilations as a result of the rapid tempo of speech (give me - gimme; going to - gonna).The causes of assimilation are explained by the interaction of sounds in the speech flow. It should be noted that assimilation and other cases of modification of soundsin spontaneous speech are constantly present and are of great importance, because in fact, there is a merger into one word of several and a phonetic word is formed, as already mentioned above. Such a mixture of sounds, pronounced by the speakers, can be deciphered through the situation and with the help of typical phrases.Among the factors causing the emergence of assimilation, called such factors as the style of speech. It is believed that in colloquial speech, which is distinguished by a high rate and carelessness of pronouncing, assimilation of consonants occurs much more frequently, compared to official speech and a slower pace, when sounds are articulated more carefully and modification processes are less pronounced.Another example of the modification of sounds in speech is the reduction, as a result of which there is a weakening and change in the sound of unstressed syllables. It is believed that the inertia of the vocal tract is a major factor in the availability of vowel reduction. The reduction of vowels occurs in positions weak prosodically or morphologically, especially unstressed syllables and affixes. There is a quantitative reduction, in which the longitude and power of the vowel and the quality is reduced, in which the quality of syllable vowels changes, i.e. vowels in unstressed syllables become weaker and shorter. With a very strong reduction, unstressed vowels can reach zero, i.e. cease to be pronounced. This type of
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reduction is called a zero reduction. For example, in the words postman, policeman, vowels may not be pronounced in all unstressed syllables.The most common occurrence in a stream of speech is considered to be elision, i.e.a process in which articulation of a sound is not realized in a hasty or careless speech. This phenomenon is characteristic not only of colloquial speech, but also of official and neutral styles. There are several types of elision: historical, when letters are not pronounced in the initial, middle or final positions in a word as a result of historical changes (for example, in such words as walk, knee, castle, write), and also modern elision, which often occurs in everyday life. speech, at a
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