o Number of studies on the quality of organic food o Results: from a total of 52,471 articles, we identified 162 studies (137 crops and 25 livestock products); o 55 were of satisfactory quality o No significant difference o “on the basis of a systematic review of studies of satisfactory quality there is no evidence of a difference in nutrient quality between organically and conventionally produced foodstuffs” o Nutrients do not depend on how the crop was grown - Nutrients depend on: o Variety type o Soil quality o Fertilizers o Crop rotations o Maturity at harvest o Transportation - Is organic more environmentally friendly? o That is often the case o The fewer the pesticides out there, the less washed into lakes o But: there is a qualifier o Ex: Soybeans What happens to aphids in soybean fields if they’re treated with organic/conventional pesticides Measured the environmental impact quotient, what they affect
Data showed that in one case the organic mineral oil had the poorest record Therefore, it is a case by case basis - There are no safe substances, only safe ways to use substances - We need to stop the battle between organic and conventional - Several routes towards solving problems o Integrated Pest Management (IPM) o Using the best means possible based on the situation (world, resources, etc) - Genetic modification o Whether GMO foods are good/bad o What is the role of genetic modification in our food supply? Lesson 2: Agricultural Science II - Any discussion of agriculture has to make reference to non-genetically modified foods - Creates fear in people o Lack of understanding - We have been genetically modifying foods for centuries - 870 BC= Assyrian relief showing artificial pollination of date palms - Grapefruit= hybrid of oranges and pomelo - Triticale= hybrid of wheat and rye - Modern science entered= could take seeds from plants and expose them to chemicals to cause mutations in the seed hoping to lead to some beneficial trait o Some good discoveries made in this area - Gene splicing o Genes are fragments of DNA o Possible to take this fragment, snip it out introduce it into DNA of another organism o = recombinant DNA technology Instilling a set of instructions o Ex: Chymosin (enzyme) Used in the making of cheese, leaves curds left behind Traditionally came from stomach of calfs Scientists discovered the genes used to create chymosin Placed into yeast yells that churned out chymosin First product of genetic engineering introduced in 1990 in our food supply o A few years later (1994), first fruit of genetic modification introduced (tomato) o Book “first fruit- the birth of biotech food” o By inhibiting polygalacturonase enzyme in tomato (responsible for texture), the tomato stays firm for longer and doesn’t get all mushy not very successful, didn’t taste much better reason that we see opposition consumer doesn’t see any benefit, no difference
- Tomato aroused the anger of anti-genetic modified movement - Not correct
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- Spring '11
- The American, Genetically modified organism, Pesticide, glyphosate