Respond to the legitimate message 3 even if it

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respond to the legitimate message 3 even if it receives multiple message 1s from adversary. Note that the adversary cannot send a malicious message 3 because message 3 is encrypted using PTK, which is dependent on PMK (only known to the supplicant and the authenticator). 6.3.3. CCMP Encryption Vulnerabilities Although CCMP (employed by IEEE 802.11i) uses the CCM encryption, the strength of which is time tested, the protocol is vulnerable to the partial matching and pre-computation attacks. The vulnerabilities of the protocol implementation and the resulting attacks have been exposed in Ref. 15. The research shows that the address field A2 and the priority field of the MAC header and the PN field in the CCMP header are transmitted as plain text in the headers as well as in the encrypted form as part of the MIC. This Copyright © 2010. World Scientific Publishing Company. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 2/16/2016 3:46 AM via CGC-GROUP OF COLLEGES (GHARUAN) AN: 340572 ; Beyah, Raheem, Corbett, Cherita, McNair, Janise.; Security in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Account: ns224671
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Authentication and Confidentiality in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks 25 leads to the partial matching attack and the researchers have shown that the key strength of the 128-bit encryption key used in CCMP decreases. The decrease in the key strength exposes the protocol to pre-computation at- tack, resulting in the compromise of data confidentiality and data integrity. Further, The CCM encryption is a two phase process. During first phase the MIC is calculated and in the second phase the encryption of the frame takes place. Similarly, the decryption is done in two phases, where first the message integrity is verified from MIC and then the decryption takes place. The two phase processing of the frame at each wireless link may lead to considerable delay in the case of multi-hop wireless networks like wireless ad hoc networks where the data traverses a number of intermediate wireless hops before reaching the wired Internet. The delay introduced by the security services leads to the impracticability of the CCMP protocol for large wireless mesh networks consisting of several intermediate hops. 7. Open Issues The strong security offered by asymmetric cryptography makes it an attrac- tive solution for wireless ad hoc networks. However, the limited computa- tional and communication capabilities of the devices and the unavailability of centralized certification and authentication servers pose challenges for adopting the asymmetric cryptographic solutions for wireless ad hoc net- works. A number of light weight security solutions have been proposed as an alternative to asymmetric cryptography, reducing the complexity of security provisioning. However, majority of these protocols do not specify any mechanism for initial credential distribution and verification. Shared
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