Either way brown in two dozen followers execute this

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other. Either way, Brown in two dozen followers execute this plan on October 1859. And the whole thing fails. Spec. Scholarly. Brown is apprehended by Robert E. Lee, General Robert E. Lee. He is tried, he is executed. Brown's last letter, last letter that he writes before his execution is brief. It's a simple, chilling prophecy, I, John Brown, and quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away. But with blood. When John Brown was executed, church bells across the North peeled. In mourning. Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote that Brown had made the gallows as glorious as the cross. So here you have arguably the nation's preeminent intellectual and one of its most important voices for morality and ethics in American life. Comparing John Brown to Christ, reaction, of course, is very different. Crowds celebrate Brown's execution across the south. White Southerners felt shocked, disgusted by northerners treating brown like some kind of a hero. Then Brown was a deranged terrorist. Over the previous decade, white southerners had become more and more zealous in their defenses of slavery, right? They've long since abandoned the ambivalent or squeamishness or shame expressed by their counterparts in the late 18th and early 19th century, right? White Southerners no longer talked about slavery as an evil that history had saddle them with is
this thing that they wish they weren't stuck with, but they didn't know how to deal with anymore. That's not how they're talking anymore. By the 18 forties, 18 fifties, they're talking about slavery as a positive, good, positive good. In fact, slavery was the best possible Foundation for a just society. For godly society. God and justice both demanded that Black people be enslaved by white people. That is the dominant view in the white South by the 18 forties and 18 fifties, cranial Mitre and other flavors of race science helped buttress this transformation away from a kind of ambivalence sense that slavery was very evil, but we're stuck with it to this proposition that slavery is a fundamental good, a positive good. And we can see this embrace of this new unapologetic positive good stance towards slavery in all kinds of political speech. As a prominent South Carolinian, put it, slavery is our king. Slavery is our truth. Slavery is our divine right. John Brown's raid and northern reaction to John Brown's raid deepened the sense among many white southerners that their king, their truth, their divine right, as they called it, was facing an existential threat. And about that, at least they were right. Lecture 25.5 John Brown was hanged in December 1859, on the doorstep of an election year. Brown's raid and the increasing popularity of Republicans in the North only furthered the process whereby Democrats became a strictly southern party are effectively a southern party. The Democratic Party in fact splits into two, with Southern Democrats nominating a southern slave holder. And Northern Democrats nominating the most prominent Democrat in the North, Stephen Douglas. Republicans nominate Lincoln. Their national platform in the

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