32 green supply chain management in the textile

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3.2 Green Supply Chain Management in the Textile Industry Green supply chain management (GSCM) refers to the fi rms business positioning integrating environmental thinking into supply chain management (Zhu et al. 2005 ). GSCM contains product design, material sourcing and selection, manufacturing processes, logistics, and post-usage (e.g., discarding and recycling) (Zhu et al. 2005 ). Based on GSCM, textile companies can direct their businesses toward an 20 K.E. Lee
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environmentally sustainable approach, so the environment can be protected and the brand image of a fi rm can be enhanced (Zhu et al. 2005 ). To execute GSCM within the systematic frameworks, textile companies often adopt global environmental certi fi cation systems such as ISO 14001:2015 (environment management system), Blue Sign ® Technologies, and OEKO-TEX ® Standard 100. ISO 14001:2015 is one of the most commonly used environmental management standards established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), based in Switzerland, consisting of 162 national standards bodies (International Organization for Standardization 2015 ). ISO 14001 standards provide practical guidance for textile companies to determine and monitor their environmental impact for continuously enhancing their environmental performance (International Organization for Standardization 2015 ). For instance, in 2011, Adidas Group s headquarters in Germany and its fi ve North American locations (Canton, Carlsbad, Montreal, Portland, and Spartanburg) was awarded the ISO 14001 certi fi cate (Adidas Group 2011 ). During auditing for the certi fi cation, each of Adidas Group locations were assessed according to their GSCM capabilities in identifying, monitoring, and controlling environmentally relevant aspects (e.g., water and energy usage, and waste management) (Adidas Group 2011 ). Blue Sign ® Technologies is based in Switzerland, and is speci fi cally concentrated on textile production with over 400 partners consisting of textile brands, manufac- turers, and chemical suppliers (Blue Sign ® Technologies N.D.). It is systemized to approve the textile supply chain s steps involved in chemicals, processes, materials, and products to ensure safety for the environment, workers, and customers (Blue Sign ® Technologies N.D.). Since 2000, Patagonia has evaluated their products by using the Blue Sign ® Technologies for reducing non-eco-friendly resource con- sumption of the supply chain as well as managing chemical, dyeing, and fi nishing processes (Patagonia N.D.a). From raw materials to manufacturing processes, 100 % of Patagonia s base layer products are being produced in accordance with the Blue Sign ® Technologies (Fetcher 2012 ). Based on over 30,000 material assessment reports provided by Blue Sign ® Technologies, to execute eco-friendly production processes, Nike controls its global supply chain, including over 800 contracted factories in about 50 countries and hundreds of textile manufacturers (Nike 2013 ).
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