Theories of emotion james lange theory physiological

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Theories of Emotion
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James-Lange Theory Physiological arousal Precedes the emotion Cannon-Bard Theory Physiological arousal and emotion occur simultaneously Two-Factor Theory Physiology and cognition create emotion Detecting Emotion Verbal communication Ex. shaky voice   nervous Non-verbal communication Ex. gaze, facial expressions Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior Women are better at discerning nonverbal emotions and are more likely to express  empathy Culture and Emotional Expression Nonverbal expressions of emotions are universally understood Evolutionary basis?? Culture differences in degree of expression but not actual expression The Effects of Facial Expression Facial-feedback Hypothesis Muscular movements involved in certain facial expressions produce the corresponding  emotion Anger Anger can harm us Catharsis Hypothesis
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Releasing aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges Happiness People who are happy perceive the world as safer, feel more confident, and live more  satisfied lives. “Feel good, Do good” phenomenon Money buys a temporary surge in happiness? Adaption-level phenomenon Tendency to judge various stimuli relative to our previous experience Relative deprivation Sense that we are worse off than others with whom we compare ourselves Personality An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting Theorists explain personality by… Psychoanalytic Theory - unconscious forces influence behavior Sigmund Freud Layers of consciousness Conscious What we are aware of at any given moment Preconscious Not currently aware of it, but could bring it to awareness Unconscious Material cannot be easily achieved/accessed Personality – Structure Id
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Present at birth Acts on impulses and desires (wants instant gratification) Operates on the pleasure principle Ego Rational and logical Tries to satisfy the Id desires Operates on the reality principle Superego Moral component Focus on how we ought to behave Operates on the moralistic principle Defense Mechanisms Tactics that reduce or redirect anxiety by distorting reality Repression Unacceptable or unpleasant impulses are pushed into the unconscious Regression One retreats to a more infantile stage Reaction formation Occurs whenever an unpleasant idea, feeling, or impulse is turned into its opposite Projection Attributing one’s own undesirable impulses to another “Hector Projector” :D Rationalization Provide self-justifying explanation rather than the real reason for an action
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Displacement Diverting an impulse towards an object or person that is more acceptable than the one  that aroused the original feelings Denial Refusal to believe or even to perceive painful realities
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