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members of a small group, used by group members to facilitate interactionCulture diffusionProcess by which people of diffrernt cultures borrow elements of material or nonmaterial culture from one another
Cultural relativismThe belief that other people and their ways of doing things can be understood only in terms of the cultural context of those other people; an antidote to ethnocentrism.Culture levelingAs cultural diffusion increases, differences between cultures decreaesCulture as a product of actionCulture systems are created by humans an in this sense are products of action.Culture as a “conditioning element”Culture puts us all in the same rutRole strainWhen the demand s of a particular role are such that incumbent is hard-pressed to meet them allStatus inconsistencySituation in which a person with a particular ascribed status achieves an inconsistent status -nontradional work roles (man as nurse; woman is truck driver)Role conflictWhen roles of demands clashSocial aggregationSome collectivity of people who happen to be in the same place at the same timePrimary groupsFamily, friendship, group, work group, gang. Tend to be small. Socioemotional. Long term. Greedy; want to take in entire individual. Informal. Relatively closed; tend to be hard to enter and exit. Secondary groupsCorporation, city, university, nation, sociology class. Can be very large. Instrumental (membership often only a means to an end); impersonal. May be long term but can also be very short term. Limited demands; only require performance of a specific role (such as worker). Formal. Relatively open; tend to be easy to enter and exit. Attributes of institutions Inherently conservative, change slowly, are interdependent, frequently differ from one society to another. Social institutions helps society become self sufficient SocietyThe totality of people and social relations in a given geographic spaceInstitutionAn accepted and persistent constellation of statuses, roles, values, and norms that respond ot important societal needs. Habitualized vs institutionalized behaviorThe way we do it (action repeated frequently and cast into a pattern) vs. the way it must be done.Social selfRelatively organized complex of attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors associated with an individual Mead-The “I” and the “Me”Me-how other’s perceive us. I-the unique us (personal reactions to the situation) Mead-Play and gamesPlay-an important phase in children’s development-first exposure to taking on the roles of others and seeing themselves as others might see them. No official rules inplay. Only limited by child’s imagination.Games-have rules and specific roles. Rules specify how the person in each role participates. Rules/roles apply nomatter who occupies the role. Role takingTake on the role of another and see how things look from his or her point of viewGeneralized otherThe attitude of the generalized other is the attitude of thewhole community. Acquired when a child begins more