The widespread production of Hebrew schoolbooks also began, and Mother Goose -style rhymes were written for children. The pinnacle of Hebrew’s development in this period came in 1913, when the so-called " War of the Languages " (תופשה תמחלמ) occurred: At that time, the Company for Aiding German Jews wished to establish an institution of higher education for engineering and insisted it should be instructed in German ; one of the arguments in favor was German having an extensive vocabulary of scientific and technical terms, while the technical vocabulary from He- brew would have to be created virtually from scratch (in part by loan translation ). The whole of the Yishuv rose up against this standpoint and forced the group to admit defeat, leading to the founding of Israel’s foremost insti- tute of technology , the Technion . This incident is seen as a watershed marking the transformation of Hebrew into the oﬃcial language of the Yishuv. Researchers studying the Google Books database noted a fivefold increase in the rate of appearance of new words in printed Hebrew between books published in 1915 and 1920, which they credit to the Balfour Declaration of 1917 and the Second Aliyah.  3.3 Mandate Period Further information: Mandatory Palestine After World War I , it was clear that Hebrew would be the spoken language of Israel. Although the immigrants arriving from the diaspora did not speak Hebrew as a mother tongue, their children learned Hebrew as their na- tive language. At this time, Hebrew speech was already a fait accompli , and the revival process was no longer a process of creation, but a process of expansion. In Tel Aviv, the Legion of the Defenders of the Language was established, which worked to enforce Hebrew use. Jews who spoke other languages on the street were admon- ished: “Jew, speak Hebrew” (תירבע רבד ,ידוהי), or, more alliteratively, “Hebrew [man], speak Hebrew” (ivri, daber ivrit/תירבע רבד ,ירבע) was a campaign initiated by Ben- Yehuda’s son, Itamar Ben-Avi . 4 See also • Hebrew literature • Language revitalization • Yiddish Renaissance 5 References  Parfitt , Tudor (1972) 'The Use of Hebrew in Palestine 1800–1822.' Journal of Semitic Studies, 17 (2). pp. 237- 252.  Parfitt , Tudor (1983) 'Ahad Ha-Am’s Role in the Revival and Development of Hebrew.' In: Kornberg, J., (ed.), At the crossroads: essays on Ahad Ha-am. New York: State University of New York Press, pp. 12-27.  Parfitt, Tudor (1995) 'Peretz Smolenskin, the Revival of Hebrew and Jewish Education.' In: Abramson, G. and Parfitt , T., (eds.), Jewish education and learning : pub- lished in honour of Dr. David Patterson on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers, pp. 1-11.  Paul Johnson , A History of the Jews , p.442. " Yet in all [of young David Ben-Gurion 's] activity, three salient prin- ciples remained constant. First, Jews must make it their priority to return to the land; ‘the settlement of the land is the only true Zionism, all else being self-deception, empty verbiage and merely a pastime’. [Quoted in Encyclopae- dia Judaica, iv 506.] Second, the structure of the new community must be designed to assist this process within a socialist framework. Third, the cultural binding of the Zionist society must be the Hebrew language.
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