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Anaphylactic shock occurs suddenly in the affected individual and if not treated quicklycould lead to death. Anaphylactic shock begins with anaphylaxis, typically due to ahypersensitivity to an allergen such as a bee sting, food allergen, environmental toxin, ormedication (Huether & McPhee, 2012). As anaphylaxis progresses to shock, systemic vascular
resistance (SVR) is decreased due to extreme histamine release from mast cells after activationby antigen-bound immunoglobulin E (IgE), as well as increased synthesis and release ofprostaglandins (Huether & McCance, 2012). TreatmentBecause anaphylaxis does not present the same characteristics for each person, it isimportant for health care providers to recognize traditional as well as atypical symptoms of thecondition. Typical indicators of an anaphylactic state include trouble breathing, swelling tohands, face, lips, or tongue, hives, or rash, and itching (Jacobsen, 2011). Treatment for thoseclassic symptoms include Epinephrine injections intramuscularly, antihistamines, and IV fluids.Atypical signs of anaphylaxis include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, decreased blood pressure, andchange in level of consciousness (Jacobsen, 2011). When it is not clear whether a person is