John Yudkin - Looked at association between sugar intake and heart disease - But KEYS was AWARE of sugar connection!! o Said it was an accidental finding, and that sugar intake paralleled fat intake - Yudkin says NOT TRUE HOE – in St. Helena o High heart disease rate; diet LOW in fat, HIGH in sugar! - Study : Heart attack patients had 2x sugar than the controls - Intervention Trial : put men on sugar-rich diet and 1/3 showed “sugar sensitivity” o Increased insulin, cortisol, weight, platelet aggregation (blood clot formation ) Dr. Robert Lustig - Similar to Yudkin; drinking and eating a lot of sugary drinks/foods ***Coronary Heart Disease is the LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH!!!*** Heart Disease - Buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries feeding the heart - Sometimes blood clot forms around the site of the plaques, prevent blood flow o Leading to heart attack VIDEO #3 Risk Factors for Heart Disease 1) Low birth weight 2) Male 3) Hypertension (constant pressure beating damages arteries, causing plaque buildup) 4) Inactivity 5) Obesity 6) Smoking 7) Diabetes – much more prone 8) Stress (put in a situation you don’t want to be in) 9) Cholesterol 10) Microbes o Can get in from mouth o So keep gums in a healthy state otherwise microbes can enter where the gums bleed 11) Homocysteine 12) High Triglycerides – FAT IN THE BLOOD Homocysteine - Methionine Homocysteine can reduce with B vitamins into various metabolites
- Dr. Kilmer McCully o Injected homocysteine into rabbits and triggered heart disease - Keep levels of this hormone between: o Men: 8-12 Micromol/L o Women: 6-10 Micromol/L o RISK BEGINS: 11 Micromol/L HOW DO YOU REDUCE HOMOCYSTEINE? o Not that hard, Metabolized in the body with help of B vitamins Through fruits, vegetables, Vitamin B supplements BUT DOES REDUCING HOMOCYSTEINE REDUCE HEART ATTACK RISK? - After 5 years, reduced 25%, but NOT benefit in terms of heart attacks - Yet it’s still recommended to reduce homocysteine levels if you have the chance to VIDEO #4 Cholesterol - Steroid - White crystal material (looks like white sugar) - Transported around bloodstream by aggregate of lipoproteins because not water-soluble - Essential biochemical – CANNOT live without it! o Part of all cell membranes o Precursor to produce sex hormones, cortisol, aldosterone, Vitamin D, bile acids - But it’s NOT a vitamin – DON’T need it in our diet o Our liver can produce ~800mg/day which is sufficient If you take some in the diet, the liver will just compensate and produce less - Found ONLY in animal products, NEVER in vegetables (don’t be fooled by veggie marketers) - High levels in the blood = risk factor for heart disease o But also found at the scene of the “crime” Chemical analysis of the plaque will find cholesterol Familia Hypercholesterolemia - Epidemiological study - Genetic condition where they form excessive cholesterol (can see external deposits) - Die early of heart disease Framingham Study in 1984 - Risk of heart attack increased as blood cholesterol increase o for WHITE MALES 30-39 - What was forgoten from the study: o BUT PEOPLE OVER 50 Y/O, total cholesterol NOT a risk factor at all!
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- Spring '11