Ultimately sought absolute power, and a communist revolution - Mao Zedong - however, diverged from traditional Marxism - “Mao Zedong Thought” - Marx predicted that class revolution would only be successful in a highly industrialized society, however, China was rural with only a tiny proletariat - Similarities - Revolution achieved through class struggle against properties classes - Communist party would guide people through the stages of communist revolution - Anti imperialistic, empires were seen as exploitative - Differences from marxism - Agents of the revolution would be the peasantry (not proletariat) - Communist revolution could succeed in rural society vs proletariat in industrialized society - Redistributed land could be owned by the peasantry vs no private
ownership of land - Encouraged nationalism vs internationalist - Wanted Mao as the single leader of CCP vs collective rule of communist party Early Clashes between the Nationalists and CCP 1927-34 - Tensions increased during the Northern Expedition - CCP used NE to spread its message to the peasantry, growing their strength White Terror in Shanghai, April 1927 - Green Gang, criminal organization, launched a series of attacks on CCP headquarters, known Communists, and workers protesting in Shanghai - Attacks were sanctioned by Chiang Kaishek, leader of the Nationalists since 1926 - Nationalist forces were under the command of anti Communist General Ba Chongxi, did nothing to stop the violence - At least 5000 were killed, devastated CCP organization in Shanghai Communist counterattacks, August-December 1927 - CCP launched 2 attacks on Nationalists - Autumn Harvest Uprising- took place in Hunan Province between Aug and Sep - Mao was involved in the campaign, CCP forces were peasants in small guerrilla forces, who were ill disciplined and ill equipped to face the Nationalists - In Canton in December 1927, they also failed due to this reason Communists in Jiangxi in 1928-34 - Many communists who survived the nationalist attacks moved to the countryside, where they regrouped, gaining support of peasants through their land-reform policies. - Jiangxi became their base, (Jiangxi Soviet) and home of memebers of the CCP after the White Terror Nationalist campaigns against CCP 1930-4 - 1928, Nationalists were the ruling party under Chiang KaiShek, Chairman of the National Government - Assaulted CCP through military encirclement campaigns, circling them and surrounding them to cut off supplies and artillery and infantry led assaults - Nov 1930- CCP countered N with guerrilla tactics, in Nov 1930 and March 1933, were defensive victories, however, their supplies were diminishing - N finally succeeded in taking Jiangxi Soviet in 1933-34, where Chiang KS deployed half a million troops, denying CCP guerrillas the opportunity to break the lines - CCP leadership launched a counterattack, however in April 1934 they were outnumbered and outgunned, and they prepared to evacuate The Long March 1934-35 - In Oct 1934, 90,000 C were encircled by N, with N in pursuit, the retreat would take the C’s over 9000 km, through 11 provinces, 18 mountain ranges, and across 24 rivers, before they reached Yanan Province in Northern China.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 9 pages?