Including them within social life to an extent that

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including them within social life to an extentthatis inspirational to those persecuted inmodernsociety. In Polynesia,themahu,comparable to the Native American two-spirits, are experi-encing cultural tension as a result of the introduced Western concept oftransgender. Across the globe in India, we find a large castelikegroupoftransgender people calledhijra;there are over one million hijra in atotal
8INTRODUCTIONpopulation of one billion Indians. The hijra enjoy an ancient pedigreeand provide an Asian counterpart to the European history of gendervariationthatextends from Cybelean priestesses in the Roman empire tothe transvestite saints of the Middle Ages, includingJoanof Arc (calledhere Jehanne d'Arc), a transgender man. Early transgender people in Eu-rope'were classed as eunuchs, a large group similar to the hijra, withwhom they may share a common origin. The Bible, in both Hebrew andChristian testaments (including a passage from Jesus), explicitly endorseseunuchs for baptismandfull membership in the religious community.Gender variation was recognized in early Islamic writings as well.Early Greece enforced a gender binary for techniques of sexual prac-tice: certain practices were considered appropriate for between-sex sex-uality and others for same-sex sexuality. Approved practices were called"clean" and those disapproved called "unclean." The Bible is relativelysilent on same-sex sexuality, in spite of the centuries-old beliefthattheBible condemns homosexuality. I suggest the Bible's clear affirmation ofgender variation and its relative silence on same-sex sexuality reflect dif-ferent ages of gender-andsexuality-variant categories of identity. Thecategory of eunuch extended to the time of Christ and beyond into pre-'. history, whereas homosexuality as a category of personal identity origi-nated relatively recently in Europe, during the late 1800s. Thus, whenthe Bible was written, there existed a language for categories of gendervariance butnotfor categories of sexuality variance.My focus then shifts to anthropologists working in Indonesia, whodescribe coming reluctantly to acknowledge a legitimate element of mas-culine gender identity in lesbian expression, although they at first be-lievedthatlesbian sexual orientation shouldnotinclude a masculinepresentation. In contrast, an investigator studying Mexicanvestidas(transgender sex workers) never moves beyond pejorative descriptions.Also, an interesting situation has occurred in the Dominican Republic,where' enough intersexed people lived in several villages to have pro-duced a special social category, theguevedoche.I wind up the culturalsurvey by returning to the contemporary United States to discuss the pol-itics of transgender people and their growing alliance with gay and les-'bian organizations, and conclude by stating a political agenda for trans-gendered people. Part 3 demonstratesthatour species manifests the sameDIVERSITYDENIED9

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