52 3 the prostate gland is located below the bladder

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52. 3. The prostate gland is located below the bladder and surrounds the urethra. It serves one primary purpose: to produce a secretion that aids in the nourishment and passage of sperm. 53. 3. Atrovent is a bronchodilator, and its anticholinergic effects can aggravate urinary retention. Glucophage and BuSpar do not affect the urinary system; timolol does not have a systemic effect. 54. 4. If paralysis of vasomotor nerves in the upper spinal cord occurs when spinal anesthesia is used, the client is likely to develop respiratory paralysis. Artificial ventilation is required until the effects of the anesthesia subside. Convulsions, cardiac arrest, and renal shutdown are not likely results of spinal anesthesia. 55. 3. Terazosin (Hytrin) is an antihypertensive drug that is also used in the treatment of BPH. Blood pressure must be monitored to ensure that the client does not develop hypotension, syncope, or postural hypotension. The
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Understanding Health Insurance: A Guide to Billing and Reimbursement
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Understanding Health Insurance: A Guide to Billing and Reimbursement
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client should be instructed to change positions slowly. Urinary nitrites, white blood cell count, and pulse rate are not affected by terazosin. 56. 3. The decision made by the surgeon to insert a catheter after a TURP or prostatectomy depends on the amount of bleeding that is expected after the procedure. During continuous bladder irrigation after a TURP or prostatectomy, the rate at which the solution enters the bladder should be increased when the drainage becomes brighter red. The color indicates the presence of blood. Increasing the flow of irrigating solution helps flush the catheter well so clots do not plug it. There would be no reason to increase the flow rate when the return is continuous or when the return appears cloudy and dark yellow. Increasing the flow would be contraindicated when there is no return of urine and irrigating solution. 57. 1. Deficient Fluid Volume is a priority diagnosis, because the client needs to drink a large amount of fluid to keep the urine clear. The urine should be almost without color. About 2 weeks after a TURP, when desiccated tissue is sloughed out, a secondary hemorrhage could occur. The client should be instructed to call the surgeon or go to the ED if at any time the urine turns bright red. The client is not specifically at risk for nutritional problems after a TURP. The client is not specifically at risk for nutritional problems after a TURP. The client is not specifically at risk for impaired tissue integrity because there is no external incision, and the client is not specifically at risk for airway problems because the procedure is done after spinal anesthesia. 58. 2. The most specific examination to determine whether a malignancy extends outside of the prostatic capsule is a study of the serum acid phosphatase level. The level increases when a malignancy has metastasized.

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