On going problem was hostility bw government and catholic church.The creation of Italy made the destruction of papal state and destruction of rome. Pius 9thlocked himself up in the vadican and called himself the prisoner of the vadican. 1874 issied papal letter called non expedit.—the Italian government had toen the church away. 1878 Pius was sussceded by Leo 13th. He had nothing good to say about Italy and he issued his own papal about Italy—Non Licet. If you have anything to do with the new government you will go to hell. People who followed Cavour: A. Depretis and F. Crispi. Tey made bribery out of art. If anyone accused them of corruption, they said om going to make you an offer you can’t refuse—everyone was corrupted. oG. Gioloitti was****??? Many Italians were attracted to Mussolini because he had the abilityto give rousing speeches. Editor of the socialism party newspaper Avanti!. He ceezed control of Italy as a dictator later on. °Otto Uon Bismarck—very tall 6’ 4”He was a genius in politics. He was truly an evil genius. He will create Germany. His father came from the oldest nobility from Prussia, Junker. He grew up tough like his father (tough) and smart from his mother. By the time he was in the university he knew 3 languages. He joineda dualing frat. He joined the diplomatic core after graduating. He wanted to lead Prussia to unify Germany. 2 things he said: love yourenemies or bite them. My life is complete, I have my wife to love and Windthosrt to hate. Politics he played for keeps. In his first assignments he took measure of Austria—convinced Austria was weak and alone. Prussia’s embasador to Russia and there he found out Russia would never assist Austria—Russia will not give him any problem Last assignment: Prussia’s ambassador to France—there he learned a great secret.°October 20, 2015 He knew GB was licking its wounds at the end of the war- so he didn’t think they would intervene. Russia wouldn’t help Austria. And Italy being small and new wouldn’t interfere either.