ENDOCRINE SYSTEM HORMONES ARE CHEMICAL MESSENGERS THAT ACT ON TARGET CELLS Pineal hypothalamus; brain Thyroid parathyroid; throat Thymus;above heart Adrenal; above kidneys Pancreas; under stomach overy /taste; lower abdomen Endocrine- secretions inside the body Exocrine- secretions outside of the body (sweat) CONTROL OF HORMONES Negative feedback system When the levels go above or below a set point the endocrine system secretes hormones to lower or raise the level
PITUITARY GLAND Hormone control The pituitary is often called “master gland” because it controls all of the other glands Its actions are controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain\ Anterior pituitary hormones Prolactin or PRL - PRL stimulates milk production from a woman’s breasts after childbirth and can affect sex hormone levels from the ovaries in women and the tests in men. Growth hormone or GH - GH stimulates growth in childhood and important for maintaining a health body composition. In adults it is also important for maintaining muscle mass and bone mass. ACTH ( adrenocorticotropin) - ACTH stimulates production of cortisol by the adrenal glands Cortisol, a so-called ‘stress hormone” is vital to survival. It helps maintain blood pressure and blood glucose levels. LH regulates testosterone in men and estrogen in women Follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH FSH promotes sperm production in men and stimulates the ovaries to release eggs in women. LH and FSH work together to allow normal funcion of the ovaries or testes. POSTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES Oxytocin- oxytocin causes milk letdown in nursing mothers and contractions during childbirth. Antidiuretic hormone orADH - ADH, also called vasopressin, is stored in the back part of the pituitary gland and regulates water balance ADRENAL GLAND DISORDERS Cushing’s disease hyperadrenocorticism ● Increased thirst and urination ● Increased hunger ● Increased panting
● Pot bellied abdomen ● Obesity ● Loss of hair Addison’s disease ● Hyposecretion of cortisol ● low blood pressure results ● Increase pigmentation Pancreas The pancreas is a large gland behind the stomach that helps the body to maintain healthy blood sugar levels. Contains islands of cells called the islets of langerhans which secrete glucagon and insulin. Glucagon- stimulates the live to break down glycogen, raises blood sugar Insulin- decreases blood sugar concentrations, affects the uptake to glucose by cells Diabetes Diabetes mellitus- results from an insulin deficiency, blood sugar rises and excess is excreted in the urine. Type1- insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile onset diabetics often caused by inherited immune disorder that destroys pancreatic cells Type 2- mature onset diabetes often individuals are overweight can be controlled with diet and exercise.
- Fall '16