Give examples of situations in which social contracts are practiced today.
Lecture 2 Social Contract vs. Rights By contrast, John Locke believed that humans are fundamentally good and rational and are willing to yield some rights to develop social contracts as long as it is the popular will of the people. While Locke originally formulated these ideas during turbulent times of the young U.S. democracy (and therefore traditionally it is held as a political or legal philosophy), it does have the added dimension of a moral theory. Give examples of situations in which Rights Ethics are practiced today.
Lecture 2 Kantian Ethics (Duty Ethics) (2) Immanuel Kant attempted to formulate abstract moral reasoning as opposed to strict adherence to doctrine imposed by a Supreme Being- a rational approach to formulating an ethical framework. The important elements of duty ethics are (a) Ethics is not a matter of consequence but of duty. (b) A right action always treats other humans as end in themselves and not as mere means . (c) People are only free when they act rationally. The primary unsatisfactory element of Kantian ethics is that the rigidity of the framework does not allow us to resolve conflicting ethical positions.
Lecture 2 Prima Facie Duties (Ross) (3) To make Duty ethics a little more flexible to deal with genuine ethical dilemmas, W.D. Ross developed the prima facie priorities Fidelity: Duty to keep commitments Reparation: Duty to correct past wrongs Gratitude: Duty to Repay Justice: Duty to prevent unfair distribution of benefits Beneficence: Duty to increase general happiness Self-improvement: Duty to better oneself Non-malfeasance: Duty to prevent harm If the ethical duty involves a conflict of these duties, we choose the one, through agreement on what is important, intuition, or personal priority, that most obligates us.
Lecture 2 Utilitarian Ethics (4,5) (1)Utilitarianism is the ethical theory that the morally right course of action in any situation is the one that produces the greatest balance of benefits over harm for everyone affected (2) Bentham’s HEDONISTIC CALCULUS of some conceived moral act: Intensity of some happiness or pain Duration of some happiness or pain Certainty of some happiness or pain Propinquity (nearness) of some happiness or pain Fecundity of same effects : how repeatable is the pleasure or pain Purity for minimizing "side effects" from some happiness/pleasure Extent of some happiness or pain, typically the number of people affected