Parietal Lobe – body sensations Cerebrum – houses memories and controls responses to different sensory signals Cerebellum – coordinates all movements and muscles Pons – controls breathing and heart rate Left Brain – controls right hand, right eye, and speech Right Brain – controls left hand, left eye and simple comprehension Myelin – white fatty substance on half of the neurons • Presence or absence of myelin allows us to tell the difference between gray matter (cell bodies) and white matter PSYCHOACTIVE drugs • Alter consciousness by inducing changes in perception, mood, and behavior • Treatments have reduced the number of patients in mentally ill institutions. • Called this because of their effect on the psychological process Most significant advances in technology that aided the study of the brain was the development of the electrodes for stimulating and/or recording the activity of cells Electro- Convulsive Therapy (ECT) – treatment in which an electric current passes through a patience head causes a seizure and loss of consciousness (usually for severe depression) • Also called Shock Therapy • Criticized for the physical and mental harm caused to patients Principal of Proximity – predicts that we will perceive objects that are close together as a group • Example: p e for m
• We see - p, e and m as distinct units and for as one unit Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) – used to measure the level of anxiety • Skin conducts electricity increases as moisture which is undetectable by sight or touch • GSR is used in lie detectors and biofeedback training • The theory you can judge emotion state of a person by measuring their GSR Primary Reinforcer –stimuli usually biological - substance or situation that is universal • Food, water and sex are examples • Produce comfort, end discomfort, fill immediate physical need Secondary Reinforcer – contain stimuli that increase rate of response because of association with another reinforcer • Getting an “ A” on a paper, or a pat on the back • Examples: praise, money, attention, approval, success Positive Reinforcer – the stimulus that increases the response that precedes it, similar to rewards • Encourage desired behavior • Reward for doing the right response Negative Reinforcer – increase the likeliness of a response by removing something painful or undesired once the desired response occurs • Example: seat belt buzzer, goes away once the seat belt is buckled Continuous Reinforcement Schedule – (CFR schedule) - each and every response is followed by a reinforce • Problem with this – loss of effectiveness Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule – reinforcing a desired behavior less frequently Discrimination – Differential Reinforcement – reinforcing positive stimuli and not the negative stimuli • Positives are enforced and negatives are ignored Escape Conditioning – an organism learns to escape from a painful situation • Part of Operant Conditioning • Demonstrates negative reinforcement
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- Winter '12