Onstad 2015 breast cancer risk assessment models

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An Invitation to Health
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Chapter 5 / Exercise 027
An Invitation to Health
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Onstad, 2015). Breast cancer risk assessment models include the GAIL model, the Claus model, and the Tyrer-Cuzik model (Stuckey & Onstad, 2015). Each of these models considers various risk factor that can be used to evaluate overall breast cancer risk and to make recommendations regarding chemotherapy and genetic screening (Stuckey & Onstad, 2015). While inherited genetic mutation is a risk factor for breast cancer, it is not the only risk factor, and women with a breast cancer 1 (BRCA 1) or breast cancer 2 (BRCA 2) mutations are not necessarily doomed to develop cancer (Stuckey & Onstad, 2015). There are also genetic screening panels that go beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2, to include multiple gene mutations that can provide more specific insight into an individual’s overall risk for breast cancer, and the risk for other hereditary cancers such as ovarian or colon cancer (Stuckey & Onstad, 2015).
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Reference: Stuckey, A. R., & Onstad, M. A. (2015). Clinical opinion: Hereditary breast cancer: An update on risk assessment and genetic testing in 2015. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 213161-165. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2015.03.003 Mark as UnreadBREAST CANCER Lilia Landers Email this Author 9/18/2017 9:10:17 PM If you were Rachel's healthcare provider, what would you do? I will not try to speak to Rachel’s sister about the diagnosis without the consent of Rachel. Patient has trusted as her provider. I have to respect her wishes. Provide a rationale for your response Obtaining rapport with a patient is imperative. Trust develops a relationship with the patient. I will never disclose my patient’s diagnosis with anyone, including family. A consent is necessary. Patient’s wishes go first. Include the pathological processes associated with breast cancer There are two types of breast cancer. Adenocarcinomas arise from a ductal or granular structure of the breast, and sarcoma, arising from connective tissue (McCance, & Huether, 2014). Changes in the genetic make-up are the root of cancer. Mutations can take place in the DNA, the histone chemical configuration or miRNA (McCance, & Huether, 2014).
What role does the BRCA1 gene contribute to managing the patient’s care? One of eight women is diagnosed with breast cancer in America. It is the number one disease affecting women. Breast cancer disease is divided into two categories: early and late unset, which depends on the age of the patient. Mutation of a BRCA1 gene is attributed 45% of the breast cancer cases. BRCA1 it is said to be a tumor suppressor (Easton, Pharoah, Antoniou, Tischkowitz, Tavtigian, Nathanson, & Goldgar, 2015). A predisposition is attributed to a dominant genetic trait. A mutant allele of BRCA1 predisposes that patient to cancer. When BRCA1 allele is missing or inactive, a mutant copy is created. Cancer starts when a mutant cell is created. Early diagnosis of a BRCA is essential for prognosis ( Easton, et al., 2015).

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