8 Marx’s conceptualization of this anecdote leads to an analysis of what he termed in his chapter 10, ‘The Working Day’. In this chapter Marx discusses ‘value and labor’. He argues that the ‘economic value of a commodity or service is determined by the total amount of socially necessary labor required to produce it’. 9 He further argues that because the workload in production relations does not necessarily equal the length of the working day, capitalists endeavor to create surplus- value and make the industry exploit as much surplus labor as possible. 10 Marx therefore advocated for the reduction of the working hours. Marx’s conceptualization of value, labor and the working time has however been criticized for some hypothetical weaknesses. For instance, the revisionist school of thought argues that Marx’s analysis fails to integrate the exploitation of capitalists with prices dependent upon subjective wants in exchange relations. 11 Other studies have also argued that Marx's so- called immiseration of the proletariat is relative to labor’s share of output 4 Ibid, p.142 5 Karl Marx, Das Capital . Vol. 1. 9 th ed. (London: Lawrence & Wishart,  1977), p.162 6 Ibid, p.112 7 Ibid, p.114 8 Ibid, p.164 9 Ibid, p.164 10 Ibid, p. 167 11 See also Brown, Morgan (2017). A Rationalist Critique of Deconstruction: Demystifying Poststructuralism and Derrida's Science of the "Non" . The Culture & Anarchy Press. p. 119.
3 since wages are not fixed. Hence to them the proletariat is not completely immiserated 12 . Paul Stewart examines the centrality of the working day, the struggles of organized white labor over working time, African labor’s failed attempts to reduce industrial working hours and the dominant working time arrangements in the South African mining industry since 1880’s mineral revolution. 13 Stewart’s argues that the mining industry’s prolonged struggle to simultaneously maintain relatively long working hours and increasingly maximize the length of the migrant labor contract reveals a deeper and sustained underlying workings capitalist labor exploitation. 14 He notes that in the wake of colonialism and apartheid, despite the substance in imperial white labor activism and decades of long struggle for shorter working hours, the industry successfully rebuffed their temporal demands as this would also entail the reduction of the working time and productivity of African labor that the industry depended on so much. 15 Stewarts’s argument complements Marx’s conceptualization of the ‘capitalist character of manufacture’. In a chapter entitled the ‘ Division of Labor and Manufacture ’, Marx argues that the workers are transformed by manufacturing developments and the division of labor is specifically capitalist form of special production of creation surplus value at the expense of the worker.
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