Sometimes protects regime serves as a buffer between

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Sometimes protects regime-serves as a buffer between state and society o Most popular and obvious form of political participation Revolutionizing Political Participation: New Channels of Activity o New forms of technology affecting protest behavior, collective mobilization, and new forms of formal and informal e-networks important for political and social ties o Problem with legitimacy and credibility Hard to distinguish between propaganda and misinformation o Role of technology in political engagement and participation Monopoly on information by state Technology increases information sharing and broadcasting of individual opinions State strictly regulating release of new technology and use of new technology o Role of the internet in the Arab world Relatively limited in its use and subject to extensive censoring and monitoring Though potential for enabling political participation Arresting bloggers, dissidents, etc. o Role of satellite television in the Middle East Potential to have greater impact than internet on spreading information More readily available Subject to censorship Ch. 16: Lebanon Only functioning democracy in the Arab world with longstanding constitution o Archaic system: clientelism, confessionalism, oligarchy, and corruption o Cooperative Christian-Muslim Government o Communal tensions and confessional narrow-mindedness
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o Weapons easily available o Crippling debt Making of the Contemporary State o From Amirate to Special Province Autonomous part of Ottoman empire Druze Community Christian Maronite Catholic Community European Great Powers made a special province because they saw themselves as protecting their fellow Christians Establishing political identities based largely on religious community, confessional competition, foreign intervention and influence, power-sharing based on confessional representation, and a habit of inter-communal negotiation and cooperation with an elected council o Greater Lebanon: a Troubled Beginning Established by French in 1920 Conflict with the native Arabs Constitution modeled after 3 rd French Republic Established judiciary, parliament and president with a council of ministers o From Independence to Civil War (1943-1975) Christian-Muslim Alliance Managed politics through patronage of jobs and services Was not strong enough to take sides in regional or international confrontations Attempt to fix weakness by strengthening army and security forces, committing to providing education and health services, and setting up civil service training and control institutions Tensions over Palestine 1975: armed gangs in Beirut unleashed a wave of violence, politicians sat by and watched country sink into civil war Collapse cause by: Large, armed Palestinian presence, a high level of demands for internal political and socioeconomic reform, an inept president and lack of timely attention from the Arab and international community
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  • Spring '13
  • The Republic, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Pahlavi dynasty, Islamists

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