Plasma membrane barrier to outside gatekeeper keeps

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Plasma membrane Barrier to outside Gatekeeper keeps unwanted material out and needed material in “skin” of the cell Composed of lipids and proteins 10
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ER Golgi Secretory Vesicles Production, processing, and sorting of material bound for cell membrane components or secretion Secretory Pathway 11
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Nucleus Houses DNA DNA replication and transcription occur here Controlled movement of material into and out of nucleus 12
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Mitochondria Power house Chloroplast Photosynthesis Endosymbiosis Theory 13
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Endosymbiosis Theory Theory: Mitochondria and Chloroplast evolved from engulfed bacteria Evidence: Both organelles have their own genomes Both divide separately from the host cell Both have their own protein- synthesis machinery Ancestral cell Engulfing of aerobic bacteria Engulfing of photosynthetic bacteria 14
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Transition to Multicellularity Avoidance of predation 15
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Motility vs. Mitosis Transition to Multicellularity 16
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Transition to Multicellularity Specialization and compartmentalization allow for an organism to be greater than the sum of its parts 17
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Experimental Approaches biochemistry molecular biology biophysics computer science development genetics physiology genomics math 18
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Model Organisms Evolutionary conservation of structure and function Advantages: Simple organization Easy to manipulate Facile genetics Develop quickly Large cohorts Disadvantages: Lacking some tissues Lacking protein diversity Simpler genomes Advantages: Tissue similarity Genomic similarity Disease modeling Disadvantages: Smaller numbers Less well-defined genetics Invertebrates Vertebrates 19
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Common Techniques Microscopy FACS Cell Culture Western Blots Immunoprecipitation
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