Masses to participate and be informed about social

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masses to participate and be informed about social, political and economic issues -Negative Aspects-TV created more passive citizens-People start to participate less -Participating less in political life -Both Positive and Negative Aspects-Television transformed the social life of Italians-Spend more time in homes watching TV-Less socially oriented in the community-Different from when people gathered in cinemas to watch films-The peculiar nature of Italian television has made it a very powerful tool for identity formation among younger generations -Younger generations follow the dreams of television stars and soccer stars (people they see on TV)-Women depicted as sex symbols that never talk → objectified Public vs. Private television: nature of programs and their effects in the Italian society-1970s-From collective to family viewing -Collective because not many people could afford it so if anyone had a TV, everyone would go to their place to watch it
-Brings people together -Used for a way to socialize -From public TV to a mixed television network system -Use of dialects to communicate on a daily basis was extremely widespread-TV system has 3 public channelsand 3 private channels-The 3 public TV channels in very beginning were all controlled by government (3 different political parties)-Christian Democrats (Catholic Subculture)-PCI (Communist Subculture)-Socialists-TV was originally for education (political and social values)-Reinforced the fact that communication and TV programs had to be gearedfor upper education class, leaving others out-Political parties controlled the public TV stations and used them to hold power by controlling public opinion -Was not until the mid 1970s that TV changes its nature → privateTV-Entertainment, sitcoms-Private TV gave possibility for people that are not highly educated to be entertained-Forced public TV to change its nature, competition-Public TV adapted new approach to broadcasting -Public TV-Fewer advertisements-Did not want an influx of American programs-Private TV: -Purely for entertainment-Effects-Changed social life: staying inside instead of going out-More passive nature-Instead of participating, they watched-Decline in political parties-Identity -Younger generation used it to shape their identities-Following the dreams, like those of TV stars and soccer playersCinema vs. Television-1980s-1990s-Cinema viewing sharply declines-Television changes its nature -As before, TV was the main entertainment -Collective viewing of cinema/TV was more popular in lower and working class-Television was state owned (before Berlusconi)-The Christian led governments made it essentially an instrument for holding power by controlling public opinion
-People were shown programs that were in line with the cultural policy and ideology of the government-Television contributed to the creation of a more culturally unified nation by closing the cultural gap between social classes and between urban and agrarian society, encouraging linguistic unity, and molding the national character-Catholic Church originally had heavy influence over television, but eventually new

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