Body function will be affected by this injury 2 marks

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body function will be affected by this injury.(2 marks)DescriptionMarks1–2
HUMAN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE16MARKING KEYSTAGE 3(c)During his examination, the neurologist used the terms ‘white matter’ and ‘grey matter’.Distinguish between white and grey matter in terms of structure and location in thebrain.(4 marks)DescriptionMarks1 mark per box1–4White MatterGrey MatterStructureAxons (nerve fibres)covered with myelinAxons (nerve fibres)without myelin/ nervecell bodiesLocation inthe brainInternalExternal (mostly)Total 4(d)While in hospital, John was also diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease.(i)State the effect of Parkinson’s disease on the brain.(1 mark)DescriptionMarksLoss of dopamine/ dopamine receptors/ dopamine neurons/dopamine synapses/substantial nigra or basal ganglia decrease1Total 1(ii)Describetwo (2)symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.(2 marks)DescriptionMarksAny two of:1–2Loss of motor coordinationTremor/ intention tremor/ shakingUncontrolled movementInability to move properly/initiate movementSlow movementMuscle stiffnessFixed gazeImpaired speechTotal 2
HUMAN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE17MARKING KEYSTAGE 3Question 29(10 marks)(a)When hyperventilation occurs, a person breathes faster and more deeply than normal.(i)What effect would this have on the level of carbon dioxide in the blood?(1 mark)DescriptionMarksDecrease1Total 1(ii)Where in the brain would this change in level be detected?(1 mark)DescriptionMarks(Respiratory centre) Medulla oblongata/ medulla1Total 1(b)A girl had the pH levels in her blood taken immediately before and after swimming 500metres in a pool. The results showed a drop in pH from 7.4 to 7.3.What caused this drop in pH to occur?(3 marks)DescriptionMarks2111
(c)Describethree (3)steps that need to occur so that more oxygen can be delivered toskeletal muscles when they become very active during exercise.(3 marks)DescriptionMarks111
(d)When oxygen levels are extremely low, they have an effect on the regulation ofbreathing. Providetwo (2)diseases or environmental situations in which this wouldhappen.(2 marks)DescriptionMarksAny two of:1–2Lung diseaseEmphysemaAsthmaCancerAny other named lung diseaseHigh altitudesLoss of pressure in an aircraftDiving (without air)Total 2
HUMAN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE18MARKING KEYSTAGE 3Section Three: Extended answer(60 Marks)

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Term
Fall
Professor
FENTON

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