And funding rather than the head teacher which may

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and funding rather than the head teacher, which may restrict the head teacher’s autonomy hence making him or her less likely to practice transformational leadership (Salfi et al., 2014). Moreover, this finding supports Simkins et al.’s (1998) findings that the head teacher’s powers are limited in public schools in Pakistan, due to the rigid rules of the government system, while non-government school head teachers enjoy a greater degree of freedom and creativity in management practices and decision-making power in the hiring of teachers. Simkins et al. (2003) also claim that private sector head teachers experience greater authority and independence as compared to public sector head teachers, which may affect their self-perceptions as school leaders. For instance, public sector head teachers are not authorized to remove underperforming teachers, or to contribute towards curriculum development and syllabus modification, apart from having limited influence on financial matters (Kandasamy & Blaton, 2004). Furthermore, the findings support Khan’s (2012) study of two principals in a private and public sector secondary school in Northern Pakistan, where the public school head avoided classroom visits, while, the private school head actively supervised the teachers and class activities by frequently visiting classes, due to their self-perceptions about their roles.
164 Thus, this study’s findings are consistent with the notion that the organizational context in the private sector appears to be more dynamic, which may encourage the frequent practice of transformational leadership behaviours in Pakistan’s private education sector. Whereas public school head teachers may be limited in their capacity to practice transformational leadership behaviours due to their focus on task-oriented leadership, owing to the rule-based system prevalent in the public education sector of Pakistan. In regard to the literature on the effectiveness of transformational leadership styles, this model of leadership has been found to have a positive influence on teachers’ perceptions of the school environment, teacher’s job satisfaction, teacher’s attitude towards change, the quality of learning within the organization and student achievement (Finley, 2014; Chin, 2007). Leithwood (1994) purports the transformational leadership style as essential to be able to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Moreover, it is suggested that since the transformational leadership style combines both the communal and agentic qualities, it is an effective form of leadership for educational institutions (Northouse, 2013; Northouse & Lee, 2015). Allen et al. (2015) also found a positive relationship between transformational leadership and school climate in Southeast Texas. Moreover, Finnigan and Stewart (2009) found the existence of transformational leadership behaviours in schools that successfully moved from the category of low-performing schools to well-performing schools in Chicago, suggesting that transformational leadership may be an effective form of leadership to

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