# How should the input output characteristic be

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How should the input-output characteristic be modified so that the output becomes a better approximation of a sinusoid? SPICE Problems In the following problems, assume A. 50. The half-wave rectifier of Fig. 3.86 must deliver a current of 5 mA to for a peak input level of 2 V. (a) Using hand calculations, determine the required value of . (b) Verify the result by SPICE. 51. In the circuit of Fig. 3.87, and k . Use SPICE to construct the input/output characteristic for V. Also, plot the current flowing through as a function of . 52. The rectifier shown in Fig. 3.88 is driven by a 60-Hz sinusoid input with a peak amplitude of 5 V. Using the transient analysis in SPICE,

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BR Wiley/Razavi/ Fundamentals of Microelectronics [Razavi.cls v. 2006] June 30, 2007 at 13:42 122 (1) 122 Chap. 3 Diode Models and Circuits out V V in + 2 V 2 V 0.5 0.5 + 2 V 2 V + 4 V 4 V V in t Figure 3.85 V in out V 1 D R 1 Figure 3.86 out V R 1 in D 1 D R 2 2 Figure 3.87 V in out V 1 D 1 μ 100 F Figure 3.88 (a) Determine the peak-to-peak ripple at the output. (b) Determine the peak current flowing through . (c) Compute the heaviest load (smallest ) that the circuit can drive while maintaining a ripple less than 200 . 53. The circuit of Fig. 3.89 is used in some analog circuits. Plot the input/output characteristic for V and determine the maximum input range across which mV. 54. The circuit shown in Fig. 3.90 can provide an approximation of a sinusoid at the output in response to a triangular input waveform. Using the dc analysis in SPICE to plot the in- put/output characteristic for V, determine the values of and such that
BR Wiley/Razavi/ Fundamentals of Microelectronics [Razavi.cls v. 2006] June 30, 2007 at 13:42 123 (1) Sec. 3.6 Chapter Summary 123 D 1 D 2 D D 3 4 1 k V CC = +2.5 V 1 k V EE = 2.5 V in V out V Figure 3.89 the characteristic closely resembles a sinusoid. 1 D V in D 2 out V out V V in (a) (b) 2 k V B1 V B2 4 V Figure 3.90

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BR Wiley/Razavi/ Fundamentals of Microelectronics [Razavi.cls v. 2006] June 30, 2007 at 13:42 124 (1) 4 Physics of Bipolar Transistors The bipolar transistor was invented in 1945 by Shockley, Brattain, and Bardeen at Bell Lab- oratories, subsequently replacing vacuum tubes in electronic systems and paving the way for integrated circuits. In this chapter, we analyze the structure and operation of bipolar transistors, preparing our- selves for the study of circuits employing such devices. Following the same thought process as in Chapter 2 for junctions, we aim to understand the physics of the transistor, derive equations that represent its I/V characteristics, and develop an equivalent model that can be used in circuit analysis and design. Figure 4 illustrates the sequence of concepts introduced in this chapter. Structure of Bipolar Transistor Bipolar Transistor Operation of Large Signal Model Model Small Signal Voltage Controlled Device as Amplifying Element 4.1 General Considerations In its simplest form, the bipolar transistor can be viewed as a voltage-dependent current source.
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