3 a yes the rule of equivalence applies to non

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3. a) Yes. The rule of equivalence applies to non-conventional definitions. It states that the definition of the word or phrase must be equivalent to the standard or expected meaning. In this case, the examples given seem to fit the usual meaning of the word. See pp. 184–185. 4. c) The rule of essential characteristics is not applicable here. The rule of essential characteristics applies to intensional definitions. See p. 185. 5. a) Yes. The rule of clarity applies to all definitions and states that the definition of the word or phrase must help to clarify or explain its meaning. In this case, these three examples would help to make the term clearer (although possibly not clear enough). See pp. 185–186. 6. a) Yes. The rule of neutrality applies to all definitions and states that the definition of the word or phrase must avoid the use of emotional language or euphemisms. In this case, emotional language and euphemisms are not included. See p. 186. Passage 8 1. a) Conventional. A conventional definition is one where the meaning of the word or phrase is specified and deviates at least somewhat from its ordinary meaning. In this case, it isn’t part of the usual meaning of “red” that it is lovely. See pp. 178–181. 2. a) Intensional. An intensional definition is one where the meaning of the word or phrase is specified by picking out features or properties. In this case, the feature “lovely colour” is used to define “red.” See pp. 178–181. 3. c) The rule of equivalence is not applicable here. The rule of equivalence applies to non- conventional definitions and states that the definition of the word or phrase must be equivalent to the standard or expected meaning. This definition is conventional, and so the rule does not apply. See pp. 184–185. 4. b) No. The rule of essential characteristics applies to intensional definitions and states that the definition of the word or phrase must pick out important or essential features, rather than insignificant or tangential ones. In this case, being a lovely colour seems less essential to the definition of “red” than other features. See p. 185. 5. b) No. The rule of clarity applies to all definitions and states that the definition of the word or phrase must help to clarify or explain its meaning. In this case, knowing that red is lovely doesn’t make it any clearer what the word means. See pp. 185–186. 6. b) No. The rule of neutrality applies to all definitions and states that the definition of the word or phrase must avoid the use of emotional language or euphemisms. In this case, the word “lovely” seems intended to provoke an emotional reaction. See p. 186.
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Good Reasoning Matters! A Constructive Approach to Critical Thinking , Fifth Edition © Oxford University Press Canada, 2012 Passage 9 1. a) Conventional. A conventional definition is one where the meaning of the word or phrase is specified and deviates at least somewhat from its ordinary meaning. In this case, the definition seems to deviate from the usual meaning of the word “bladder.” See pp. 178–181.
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