Then collect the data then test if the prediction is

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Then collect the data – then test if the prediction is correct Psychodynamic Theory Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) was the first to present a theory (Psychodynamic Theory) to explain human psychosexual development – not a scientific theory (it is not falsifiable – cannot make a falsifiable hypothesis, can’t make predictions for the future) Libidinal energy is the psychic energy associated with desires and drives, it’s the force of life. Psychodynamic theory very man centered – developed by a man and shows it didn’t account for women Psychodynamic is the larger theory for psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis : making people aware of their drives and history (make the unconscious, conscious) Psychodynamic theory explains personality development as the result of successful (or unsuccessful) completion of specific stages during the first six years of life Person needs to solve some stages of development, and if anything goes wrong the person can become fixated (anally fixated) - Oral stage: during this time, it’s focused on the mouth – not enough love the person will be orally fixated - Anal stage: learning to control ones bowels – if something goes wrong they can be anally fixated (stuck and rigid, has to have things that way or completely loose) – no healthy control - Phallic Stage: focused on genitals: - Latency Stage - Genital Stage: person learns to satisfy personal needs with contributions from others According to Freud, it’s the genital stage that women are suppose to mature from clitoral orgasms to vaginal orgasms – resulted in many woman feeling “inadequate” because they never get there The Oedipus complex is part of the phallic stage where a boy sees his father as a rival for his mother’s affection Electra complex = penis envy - will start to want a penis to satisfy her mother then eventually wants to be her father and just loves her father Pros First theory to emphasize the importance of childhood in personality development Provided a therapeutic approach to help those with psychological problems Cons Overemphasis on sex, particularly sex from the male perspective Clinical data that is flawed all antidote Impossible to test the theory experimentally Damaging myths about more mature vaginal orgasm Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) discovered that pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus will, over time, result in a conditioned response Classical Conditioning can help us understand why someone develops a fetish for example: foot fetish Classical conditioning has been used to understand the development of various compulsive sexual behaviours and fetishes Classical conditioning can be used therapeutically to help extinguish an unwanted fetish o For example, if every time the client gets aroused by the unwanted fetish, he is made to smell ammonia salt capsules (which will make him nauseous), the fetish will be associated with nausea instead of pleasure Classical conditioning has been used to explain sexual orientation

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