This model is prescriptive in nature and includes 5 decision making styles of tell, sell, consult, join, and delegate. • The style is based on the answers to three questions: is all the information available, is acceptance necessary, can the group make a good decision. This model is prescripive in nature and includes 5 decision making styles of tell, sell, consult, join, and delegate. • The style is based on the answers to three questions: is all the information available, is acceptance necessary, can the group make a good decision. 34. 35. EQUITY THEORY - people will compare the inputs they bring to a job with the outcomes they receive as compared to other employees in comparable jobs. 36. 37. QUANTITATIVE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT - born from research conducted during World War II. Its approach to management involves the use of quantitative techniques such as statistics and computer simulations to aid in managerial decision-making processes. 38. 39. CUSTOMER-FOCUSED QUALITY SCHOOL OF MGMT strives to continuously improve performance to deliver high quality goods or services to the marketplace. 40. 41. HAWTHORNE STUDIES - Elton Mayo becomes the first to question the behavioral assumptions of scientific management. The studies concluded that human factors were often more important than physical conditions in motivating employees to greater productivity. The Hawthorne studies demonstrated that an increase in productivity is a direct result of a worker-friendly supervisory system. Workers' productivity improved when
they were given privileges by supervisors. The Hawthorne studies actually refuted the classical management theory, which focused on the single best way to perform and manage tasks. Interestingly, the first study showed that worker productivity actually increased as lighting levels decreased up until the point where workers could no longer see. This study showed that it was more than just working conditions alone that affected worker productivity. The Hawthorne studies actually concluded that social needs of workers, such as being regarded and being afforded privileges, are a primary consideration. The behavioral approach to management, which revolves around human relations, emphasizes treatment of employees over output or performance. The behavioral approach is considered to have started with the Hawthorne Studies. The human relations movement began with Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger's work in the Hawthorne Studies. The Human Relations Movement, in which the treatment of employees was emphasized over output, began with Mayo and Roethlisberger. This is associated with the behavioral approach to management. The Hawthorne Effect was the term coined for the effect where studying the performance of workers actually improved performance. The Hawthorne Effect was defined during the Hawthorne Studies, when worker performance improved no matter what factors the researchers changed in the experiment, simply because the workers knew they were being studied.
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- Winter '12
- Management, Henri Fayol, scientific management