ut. themselves.:> A.!101.lwr proble m is accurac~·; a candidate wh o is in a bad mood when taking the sunTy may ha,·e inacnira 1e scores. Obscrn·r-ratings surveys prm·idc a n indepenck111 assessme n t of pe rsonality. He re, a co-worker o r anothe r observer does the rating (sometimes with the sub-ject's knowledge and sometimes not) . Though the results of selhe po rt surveys and observer-ratings surveys a rc s1rongly correlated , research suggesL'> o bserver-ratings surn.:ys beuer predict success o n rhe job. 1 However, each can tell us something unique a bout an indi\'idual's be ha,·ior. An a nalysis ofa large numbe r of o bser\'er-rcportcd personality studies shows that a combinatio n of self~rcports and observe r-re pons predicts performa nce bette r than any on e type o f informa-tion. T he implicatio n is clear: Use bot.h obsen-cr ratings and self~rcporl ratings of personality when making importanL employment decisio ns. Personality Determinants An earl y debaLe in personal it ~' research cente red on \\'hethcr an indi,·idual's persona lity is the result of hercdit}' o r em ·ironment. Pe rson aliLy appears to be a result o f both: howe,·e r, research tends to support the importance o f heredity over the environ men I. Heredity refers to factors determined a t conception. Physical statme . facial features, gende r, Lemperamenl, muscle compositio n and re llcxcs, energy level. and biological rhythms arc genC'rally considered to be ci1hcr compleLc ly o r sub-stantially influe nced by parentage-by your biological parents' bio logical, p hys i- ol og i ca l, a nd inh ere nt psych ol ogi c al make up . Th e h e redir~ · a ppr oac h argue s that the ultimal c ex plan aL io n of an in d i \iclua l's p e r so n ali t ~ · is the mo l ec 11lar s tructur e o f th e ge n es . l oca ted in th e c hr o m oso mes. R esea rche rs in man y differclll co untri es ha ve s tudied Lh o u sa nd s o f se LS o f id e nti ca l twins who were se parat ed at birth an d raised apart. " If he re dit y p l aye d liul e or no part in d eter mining pe r so na li ty, you wo u ld expec t to find few s imi- lariLi es be t wee n se parat ed twim . R esea rche rs hav e found. h oweve r. th at ge n et i cs acco un ts [( )1 · aho uL : )0 percent o f th e persona lit y similari1i es betwe en Lw in s a nd mor e th an ~O p erce nt of Lhc s imil ar i Lies in occ u pa 1i ona l and le is ur e int e r es ts. O ne set. o f twin s scp araL ed for 39 yea rs a nd raised '1 !1 m i le s apa rt were fo und to driv e th e sa rn<· mod el a nd co l or rnr. They cha in- sm oke rl the same brand o f ci ga- re lle , ow n ed clog s with the sa m e nam e, a nd r eg ularl y vaca ti o ned with in thr ee bl oc ks o f eac h o th e r in a b eac h co mmunit y 1,500 mi les ;1wa v.
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