Temperature Scales-Kelvin (°K) and Celsius (°C) scale use the same divisions. 0 °K is absolute zero or -273°C -Rankin (°R) and Fahrenheit (°F) scales use the same divisions with 0 °R is absolute zero or -460 °FStandard Day-Temperature +59 F or 15 °C-Pressure 14.7 psi. / 29.92 inHg / 1013.2 mb -humidity 0% -altitude sea levelHumidity has very little effect on power output of an engine. This is because only 25-35% of the air is used for combustion.Gas Laws Boyle's Law-At a constant temperature, the volume of the gas will vary inversely as its pressure changes.Charles' Law- If a gas is held at a constant pressure, it will expand in direct relationship to the increase in its absolute temperature.BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE - When a gas or fluid is supplied at a constant rate through a duct, the sum of the potential and kinetic energy is constant. - Potential energy = pressure energy - Kinetic energy = velocity energySubsonic airflows (incompressible) -When air flows through a converging ductat speeds below the speed of sound, its velocity increases and the pressure decreases.-Through a diverging duct, velocity decreases and the pressure increases. Supersonic airflow (compressible)-When air flows through a converging duct at supersonic speedsit compresses and its density increases. Its velocity decreases and pressure increases.-When traveling through a divergent duct it expands and its density decreases, velocity increases and pressure decreases.
Mach number -Is the ratio of an object's speed to the local speed of sound M = V/ cs-Speed of sound is only affected by temperature.-1116 feet per second at standard day conditions.Physics terms:Force: The push or pull that will produce or prevent motion. I.e. Gravity (g)is a force that attracts bodies towards the earth at a rate that will increase is velocity by 32.2 feet per second.(ft/sec.) Work:is done when a force acting on a body causes it to move through any distance. Work = force x distance or W= F x dPower:The rate that work is being done. Power =force x distanceor P = F dTime tIE. One horsepower (hp) = 33,0000 ft. lbs/min. hp = power (ft. lbs/min)33,0000Speed:distance traveled per unit of time Speed = distancetimeVelocity:speed in a given direction. (V)Acceleration:the rate of velocity change of an object, increasing or decreasing. (a)Acceleration = final velocity minus initial velocitya = V2 - V1Time tMass:the amount of fundamental material .Derived by dividing weight of object by accelerationdue to gravity. (g = 32.2 ft/sec)Momentum:Mass x velocity or MVEnergy:The capacity to do work. This can be split into two categories, Potential and Kinetic.Potential Energy:stored energy. ( PE )Kinetic Energy:energy of motion (KE )
Newton's Laws of MotionFirst Law:A body (mass) at rest tends to stay at rest and a body in motion tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside force.