owing to the array of electromagnets needed to keep the particles going in a circle, and the need for a large diameter (sometimes on the order of kilometers) in order to get those larger 48
energies. This, of course, makes circular accelerators more expensive to build. In addition to thelarger energies a cyclotron can produce, the repeated circular path of the accelerated particles results in a much higher probability of collisions with the target particles at the intersection of their paths.To see a very simple demonstration of a particle accelerator using a ping pong ball, see this 1-1/2 minute YouTube video: %3A%2F%2Fvideo%2Egoogle%2Ecom%2Fvideosearch%3Fhl%3Den%26source%3Dhp%26q%3Dparticle%2Baccelerator%2Bexperiment%26um%3D1%26ie%3DUTF%2D8%26ei%3D21uRSu%2D9HImZlAfu0pG1DA%26sa&feature=player_embedded#t=14. If you want to use it in your classroom, but your school blocks YouTube, simply download it at home to your own computer and save it to a flash drive to take to school and put on your school computer.As the energy needs for the continued production of new elements increased, many of the lower-energy particle accelerators responsible for the discovery of the transuranium elements were decommissioned and have been replaced by new, higher-energy instruments. The latest new US particle accelerator, originally proposed by Michigan State University as the Isotope Science Facility, but later renamed the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), is being planned. The government in 2008 awarded a $550 million grant to Michigan State University for its proposal to develop the instrument. The primary purpose of FRIB is to produce the higher energies needed to accelerate heavier ions into heavier nuclei in order to produce even heavier superheavy elements. All of this will also help scientists better understand the nuclear reactions behind stars and stellar explosions test present theories about the nature of matter, and to help to develop new nuclear technology and medicines. It is expected to take a decade to design andbuild the facility. Here is the official Department of Energy’s Office of Science announcement of the awarding of the grant: . And this document contains an illustration of the proposed facility: -description.pdf.For an example you could use with students, you probably have in your own home an example of a linear particle accelerator—a television or computer monitor with a cathode ray tube (CRT) screen. In the case of the CRT screen, the particles being accelerated are electrons.Electrons are emitted from a heated filament, similar to that of a normal light bulb. The heated filament is the cathode. The negative electrons are attracted (accelerated) through the evacuated picture tube toward the anode, consisting of a focusing anode and an accelerating anode. Two sets of electromagnets deflect the accelerated electrons to control their vertical and horizontal positioning as they collide with your TV screen. Phosphors on the screen then glow
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