Ornish Diet: replace high fat foods with complex carbs that are typically lower in fat. NOT low carb High Carb Diet: a lot of starchy foods with a lot of fiber. Zone diet: 40% carbs, 40% protein, 30% fat. Specific foods to stay away from. 1. Carbs break down to simple sugars, mostly glucose. 2. Glucose triggers insulin release 3. Insulin allows glucose to be absorbed through receptors by muscle cells and be used for energy 4. With too much insulin in the blood receptors are overwhelmed and become “resistant” 5. Glucose is absorbed into fat cells and is converted to fat
6. In the absence of glucose in the blood, stored fat is used to produce energy and weight loss occurs South Beach Diet: reduce “bad” carbs like baked potatoes and bananas. No need to count calories. - Relies on the glycemic index: measures how effectively foods deliver glucose in the bloodstream Drinking or eating anything sweet triggers the body to wanting more of that. Harvard Study: Average weight gain is roughly a pound a year. Subjects who exercised gained the least weight. Worst foods: - Fries - Chips - High glycemic - Processed meats Weight loss foods: - Nuts - Fruits - Veggies - Whole grain - Yogurt: probiotic food can be beneficial. Bacterial distribution in digestive tract can play great role in weight loss. Two major types: bacteroidetes (lean), firmicutes (fat). Ephedra: plant extract. Increases metabolism so can lead to weight loss. Could lead to heart disease so was taken off the market. Epigallocatechin (EGCG): found in green tea leaves. Polyphenol with evidence that it can increase metabolism to some degree by producing heat. Replaced ephedra and was widely promoted. However, very loose regulations, little information on the dosage. - Over 400 mg of EGCG can cause very severe problems (liver and kidney damage) The Paleo Diet: the human body has not been able to adapt to a grainy diet because 10,000 years is not enough to do so. We such be eating like our ancestors, the cavemen. - Low carb diet because cutting out all grains - Eat: meat, poultry, fish, eggs, veggies, fruits, fermented foods, healthy fats - Avoid: grains, legumes, dairy, vegetable and industrial seed oils, processed foods Some say we don’t really know what our ancestors ate so this is nonsense. Evidence for benefits? - Studies are not compelling because not many subjects Prediabetic individuals gain weight on a high glycemic load diet and lose weight on a low glycemic load diet or one with lots of fiber and whole grains even without restricting calories.
- Diabetic: lose more weight on a high-fat, low-carb diet - Normal blood glucose: lose more weight on a low-fat, high-carb diet Mediterranean Diet: leads to health rather than weight loss. - Limits red meat - Emphasizes healthy oils and seafood - Large amounts of veggies - Low sugar - No sweets, no refined carbs
TOPIC 9: DIET & DISEASE Lesson 1: Diet & Cancer Causes of cancer: - Diet & obesity: 30-35% - Tobacco: 25-30% - Radiation: 5-10% - Infections: 15-20% - Pollution: 3-5% - Alcohol/sexual: 3-5% - Genetics: 5-10% At least 90% of the causes are probably related to environment of some form.
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