Very high risk levels of each social indicator were

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very high risk levels of each social indicator were considered as social hotspots where social targets are not met, in line with (Ekener-Petersen et al. 2014 ). The results allow us to identify the negative social hotspots on industry sector level. In Zamani et al. (2016), we focused on social risks associated with Swedish clothing consumption. Here, we also add results for the USA and China, to show that the approach is applicable also in studies concerned with other geographical contexts. 2.2.1 Results Figures 4 , 5 and 6 show the resulting risk-level intensity (social target transgression intensity) for each indicator for yearly consumption in Sweden, USA and China. For more results for the Swedish context, see Zamani et al. ( 2016b ). Results from social hotspot identi fi cation in Figs. 4 , 5 and 6 show the signi fi cant social risks in textile and clothing industry related to wage, child labour and safe working conditions and gender inequality. The risk-level intensity for Swedish and Chinese consumption showed to be highest for the risks of wage under 2 USD and child labour . The highest social risks in textile and clothing supply chain for consumption in the USA are related to fatal injury and child labour . 2.3 Use Phase Assumptions and National Statistics Figure 2.1 shows that the laundry in the use phase is close to insigni fi cant for the Swedish clothing sector. This is a contrary fi nding to several previous studies pointing out the use phase as dominating on climate impact (Allwood et al. 2006 ; BIO 2007 ; Levi Strauss & Co. 2015 ). LCA studies of garments therefore often 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 Wage under 2 USD Child labour Gender inequality Fatal injury Non fatal injury Yearly consumption: Sweden Fig. 4 Very high and high-risk-level intensity for each social indicator based on work hours for yearly consumption in Sweden Will Clothing Be Sustainable? Clarifying Sustainable Fashion 13
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investigate the climate saving in lowering the washing temperature from 60 to 40 °C (Beton et al. 2014 ; Laursen et al. 2007 ), often disregarding that 60 °C is seldom used and that some garments (underwear, bedlinen, etc.) can require a high washing temperature to get a clean result (Krozer et al. 2011 ). Table 4 shows the use phase parameters of our study, based on statistics of real user behaviour in Sweden (Roos et al. 2015b ) and, as a comparison, examples from the literature of assumptions on user behaviour in terms of garment life length, number of washes, washing temperature and drying method. It is not surprising that LCA studies of a speci fi c garment often assume the expected technical performance of the garment (theoretical life length), as the commissioner behind the study perhaps wants to signal that their products are of good quality. However, the clear differences between real and theoretical use phase parameters evident in Table 4 suggest that such LCA studies do not re fl ect real garment life cycles. Assuming the 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 fatal injury child labour wage under 2 usd non fatal injury gender inequality Yearly consumption: US Fig. 5
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  • Fall '19
  • Sustainable fashion, Sandra Roos

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