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that this would hurt them more than help and wouldn’t ratify it until they added the Bill of Rights. 4.The desire for independence was instilled within the hearts of the people before the Revolution began. Taxes to pay off war debts affected the colonies economically, but political issues such as salutary neglect warned the people of the encroaching powers of the crown. With the occurrence of the French and Indian War ended the policy of salutary neglect (and Navigation Acts). Britain enforced various taxes and put in placed the Proclamation of 1763, which banned Americans from settling passed the Appalachian Mountains. The Stamp Act also caused much stir within the colonies as the Sons of Libertiesemerged as well as the Stamp Act Congress. The Congress was important as it was the first time the colonies had taken a step to repeal British policies. The Boston Tea Party also led to the Intolerable Acts. UNIT 4 (1800-1848)DEFINING THE NATION’S DEMOCRATIC IDEALSTHE MARSHALL COURTJudiciary Act of 1801, 16 new judgeships were created > midnight judgesto preserve Federalist ideas within the presidency. MARSHALL MAKES A DECISIONMidnight judges > Jefferson didn’t want to appoint > William Marburysues Writ of mandamus:order to force Madison to deliver commission Judge rule: commission exceeded authority and voidPrecedent of Judicial Review, helped Supreme Court gain power. AN ATTEMPT TO FLUSH FEDERALISTSImpeach radical Federal judgesJEFFERSON’S CHALLENGESGeorgia gives land to federal government but sells some illegally > Jefferson tries to resolve quickly > targeted for corruption
BATTLES WITH AARON BURR12 Amendment: electors to Electoral College to specify which ballot was being cast for the officeof president and which was being cast for the office of vice president. Essex Junto: radical Federalists > plans of secessionBurr challenges Hamilton to a duel > Burr Conspiracy> plan to wrest Mexico from Spanish and join with Louisiana TerritoryTHE ERA OF GOOD FEELINGSJames MonroeNEW TARIFF AND ITS OPPOSITIONTariff of 1816: impose 20% duty on all imported goods John C. Calhoun: tariff hurting South for the benefit of the NorthDaniel Webster: New England hadn’t developed enough to withstand interruptions to trade freely with BritainHenry Clay: American System: help establish manufacturing and bring in revenue for internal improvements. TROUBLE WITH THE BANK OF THE UNITED STATESPanic of 1819: BUS financial crisis: over speculated on land in the west and attempted to curb inflation by pulling back on credit. BUS forced to demand payment in hard specie. Foreclose on farmers who couldn't pay back their debts. THE RISE OF THE SECOND PARTY SYSTEMCHANGES IN THE ELECTORAL PROCESS“Rise of the Common Man”Eliminate need for property to voteNew 3rd party: Anti-MasonsPopular election led to emergence of new democracy, candidates had to run national campaignsMUDSLINGING ELECTION OF 1824John Adams vs. Andrew JacksonCorrupt bargain: tie: Henry Clay used influence to help Adams win electionWhigs: like Federalist Party, opposed Jackson.