201_W18_12_Primate+Mating+Systems.pdf

11 why females invest more primates extended

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11 Why females invest more Primates: extended pregnancy (large brain), altriciality Extra time and energy per infant Relatively small number of surviving infants produced over lifetime Each infant = greater portion of lifetime fitness
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12 Why males invest less Males typically less involved in care of offspring – Male care often less important for survival of offspring – Time, energy and resources are limited – Paternity uncertain – Often better strategy to use their resources to access additional females
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13 When males invest less Males will be less involved: 1) when aNrac>ng addi>onal mates is rela>vely easy (low cost) 2) when fitness of offspring raised by one parent is high (benefit of addi>onal care is minimal) • When benefits of investment outweigh costs of seeking new ma>ngs, males will provide more care (tamarins, owl monkeys – females can’t provide enough care?)
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Reproductive Strategies Sexes invest unequally in offspring – Female investment typically higher Causes of variation in RS are likely to be different: – Females: securing resources (food) – Males: securing mates 14
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15 Female Reproductive Strategies Female RS depends on ability to obtain enough resources (esp. food ) for her and her offspring Abundance leads to high birth rates, shorter interbirth intervals (e.g., provisioning by humans) Resource crashes lead to low rates, long intervals (e.g., cyclones) (provisioned years in open squares, 1964-1971)
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16 Female Reproductive Strategies Access to food is important, so females often compete for this access Dominance hierarchies often form – High-ranking females gain access to more/ better quality food
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17 Female Reproductive Strategies Rank is positively correlated with RS 1. Macaques: rank and group size influence RS 2. Hanuman langurs: rank and age influence RS
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18 Female Reproductive Strategies Rank is positively correlated with RS 3. Chimpanzees: Mother’s rank influences survival to weaning in offspring (hence RS) High rank Low rank Mid rank
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19 Female Reproductive Strategies Socializing can positively influence RS May insulate some females from cost of low rank – Benefits from association with high ranking females?
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