substantial increase in urine output lat has a low spec gravity due to the

Substantial increase in urine output lat has a low

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substantial increase in urine output lat has a low spec gravity due to the inability to concentrate urine. McPhee & Hammer, (2010) describe the hallmark of DI as dilute urine in the face of hypernatremia. The evaluation for DI includes water deprivation testing. However, this may be risky due to the risk for circulatory collapse if the individual loses more than 3% of the pretest body weightADH (Huether & McCance, 2012). Other testing includes serum osmolality and plasma ADH levels (Huether & McCance, 2012). It is important to differentiate between central and nephrogenic types of DI. This can be accomplished by the injection of vasopressin. In central DI there will be a increase in urine volume and osmolality, but in nephrogenic DI there will be little to no change (McPhee & Hammer, 2010). Treatment for DI is related to the individual’s ability to maintain hydration. IN cases where there is a complete ADH deficiency synthetic vasopressin (DDAVP) may be prescribed (Huether & McCance, 2012).Diabetes MellitusDiabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of disorders rather than a single type of disease. There are multiple types of DM . The most common are type 1 where there is an absolute insulin deficiency, Type 2 which involves insulin resistance or a secretory deficit, and Gestational Diabetes which is present during pregnancy (Huether & McCance, 2012).The pathophysiology of DM Type 1 is an autoimmune response in which there is a selective destruction of pancreatic beta cells by T lymphocytes targeting ill defines B cell antigens which results in the pancreas ability to produce insulin (McPhee & Hammer, 2010). Thepathophysiology in type 2 is not as clearly defined. Obesity has been proven to be a predisposing

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