Group : The way in which individual parts are combined to form a whole. Organizational principles Katz (1951): reviews 6 basic principles of organization. 1 . Principle of experience : elements are grouped based on the prior knowledge/experience of observers. Figure-ground segmentation : perceptual organization of a scene such that one element becomes the foreground and the other element(s) become(s) the background. Denotivity : The degree to which an object is meaningful and familiar to an individual. 2. Principle of proximity: Things that are near one another are grouped together. 3. Principle of Closure : Things that form closed shapes are grouped together. 4. Principle of good continuation : Things that form continuous lines are grouped together. 5. Principle of similarity : Things that are similar are grouped together. 6. Principle of common fate : Things that are moving in the same direction are grouped together. Limitations of Gestalt perception ceteris paribus : when all is equal. • The principles determine how we group things when everything other than the principles is kept constant. Gestaltist’s error: The assumption that the whole objects should always dominate over the elements of an image. Dissociations of perception Apperceptive agnosia : A form of visual agnosia marked by a difficulty matching or categorizing objects. Optic ataxia : a neural deficit in which the patient can identify objects, but is unable to accurately interact with them manually. Prosopagnosia : an impairment in the ability to recognize faces despite intact recognition of objects. Skin conductance response : The small increase in the conductivity of the surface of the skin when an individual is aroused by seeing a familiar object or person. Capgras syndrome : a condition marked by the belief that significant others have been replaced by imposters/doubles/robots/aliens. Summary see p. 80 Key terms
Visual agnosia Decision demon Gestalt psychology Associative agnosia Contrast energy Bi-stable figures Time spaces Squelshing Figure-ground segmentation Perception Geons Holistic Stimulus Recognition by components Atomistic Theory of ecological optics Recoverability Organizational principles Ambient optical array Top-down (user-driven) processing Group Texture gradients Context effects Principle of experience Topological breakage Bottom-up (data-driven) processing Denotivity Scatter-reflection Moon illusion Principle of proximity Transformation Apparent-distance theory Principle of closure Optic flow field Angle of regard theory Principle of good continuation Percept Jumbled word effect Principle of similarity Memory trace Parallel distributed processing Principle of common fate Höffding function Word superiority effect Ceteris paribus Pattern recognition Empirical theory of colour vision Gestaltist’s error Template McGurk effect Apperceptive agnosia Prototype Change blindness Optic ataxia Template-matching theory Grand illusion of perception Prosopagnosia Multiple-trace memory model Feature integration theory Skin conductance response Probe Preattentive processing Capgras syndrome Echo Feature binding Feature detection theory Attentive processing Pandemonium pop-out Feature Blind spot Cognitive demon Perceptual completion (filling in)
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- Spring '09