students, but should also be a place to explore options that lead to a career choice19. Perceived Challenges Another question on the survey asked participants to reflect on the challenges they have faced when starting their career. They assessed the 10 criteria shown in Table 1. Interestingly, one criterion, Language problems, was perceived as not being a challenge by the majority (75%) of participants. This may be due to the current educational system in Lebanon, in which most students are fluent in Arabic, French, and English. With this result, this item was excluded from the challenges list; therefore, only nine items were considered as challenging factors. Mean Std. Deviation Working under pressure 4.33 1.0 Taking responsibility 4.59 1.0 Working by yourself 4.16 0.9 Responsible for results 4.29 1.1 Working with people from different background 4.61 1.1 Afraid of failure 3.55 0.9 Dealing with your superiors 4.39 1.1 Not knowing enough 3.96 1.1 Language problems 1.99 1.2 Learning on your own 4.18 1.1 Table1: Challenges criteria An exploratory Factor Analysis (FA) was applied with principal components extraction, eigenvalues greater than 1.00, and absolute value more than .40. Both results of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling equal to .833 and Bartlett’s test (p<.0001) showed that using FA is appropriate for this study. The FA with the principal components extraction yielded three factors accounting for 61.6% of the total variance. Table 2 shows the rotated factor loadings, which are the correlations between the variable and the factor. For items that were loaded under two factors, only the highest loading was retained. By evaluating the items loaded under each factor, descriptive names were generated. Factor 1 with a variance (σ2 =39.6%) was labeled ResponsibilityChallenge; factor 2 (σ2 =12.0%) was labeled Communication Challenge; and factor 3 (σ2 =10.0%) was labeled Self-Confidence Challenge. Three new variables were computed based on the mean of the items falling under each factor. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to detect the main effects between the located variables. The results revealed significant differences among the three factor scores, (F(2, 368) = 24.15, p< .0001). The results revealed that the Communication Challengefactor was the most complicated factor for engineers during the transition from college to career with a mean (μ=4.50) and standard deviation (σ=1.1) on a scale of five. This may reflect that college does not place much emphasis on communication and administrative related skills. The Responsibility Challenge factor (μ=4.34, σ=1.1) appears in the second place, followed by the
Self-Confidence Challengefactor (μ=3.89, σ=1.1). With the rapid evolution of technology, engineers need to be updated with the latest applications available in their field. It is somehow expected, therefore, that participants would feel challenged in a competitive work environment where they are expected to be self-learners with more responsibility and self confidence demands.
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- Fall '16
- Managment, Industrial Engineering, Quality Engineering