Compelling motive for colonialism is economic

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Compelling motive for colonialism is economic; colonial areas provided the raw materials needed for domestic industries and additional markets for industrial products - Colonialism ended following WW2 Geopolitics: the study of state power over space and the ability to shape international political relations Heartland theory: a geopolitical theory of world power based on the assumption that the state controlling the Eurasian heartland held the key to world domination - Location and physical environment were key variables in explaining world power distribution - Theory was flawed because it over emphasized eastern Europe Geopolitik: the study of states as organism that choose to expand in territory in order to furill their “destines” as nation states Centrifugal forces: factors that make it difficult to bind an area together as an effective state - cultural divisions within the state - tear a state apart - Internal divisions in language and religion that lead to a weak state identity - Federalism: form of government in which power and authority are divided between central and regional governments - prevent one level of government from dictating to another Centripetal forces: factors that pull an area together into a single unit to create a relatively stable state - bind a state together Boundaries - mark the limit of a state’s sovereignty - lines drawn where states meet - state’s stability often reflects the nature of its boundaries - Antecedent; boundaries established before signiggnat settlement began - Subsequent; boundaries defined after an area has been settled and the basic form of human landscape has been established Downloaded by Sjkskdkj djfjkfkf ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|6457531
In countries with significant internal divisions - one of three general situations may threaten state stability - Secessionist: the act of a group formally withdrawing from a federation or political state- arise when groups within multinational states want to create their own separate states - Nations within want to link with members of the same nation in other states to create a new state - Irredentism: the view and assertion by one country that a minority population living outside its formal borders (usually in an adjacent country) rightfully belongs to it culturally - one state seeking return from another state of people and or territory belonging to it The states of contemporary Africa are not products of African history but creations of coloalism that have gained independence - reflecting past European rather than current African interest 4 functional prerequisites for the existence of a state - economy, political power, law and culture - Tension between European cores are a result of less political power, less dominant cultures - Core-periphery: states and religions are often unequally divided between powerful cores and dependent peripheries Separatist movement in Europe - Devolution: a process of transferring power from central to regional or local levels of government o Language is usually a key factor o

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