Dutch and German Expressionism Old Stock Exchange, Old Commodities Exchange; aka: The Beurs van Berlage The Amsterdam School: Following the example of Berlage (and Eduard Cuypers, who also practiced in an abstracted Neo-Gothic brick style) a group of young architects experimented with expressive brick architecture, largely on social housing projects after WWI, especially in Amsterdam Zuid (South), an urban extension planned by H.P. Berlage with mainly residential structures. They published their designs in their journal “Wendingen” (“Change”), with the most prominent members of the Amsterdam School: Michel de Klerk, Johan van der Mey and Piet Kramer
German Expressionism Fritz Höger, Chilehaus, Hamburg, Germany, 1922–24 Bruno Taut, Glass Pavilion at the Werkbund Exhibition, Cologne, Germany, 1914
German Expressionism Erich Mendelsohn, Einstein Tower, Potsdam, Germany, 1920–21 Grosses Schauspielhaus (Great Theater) Berlin, Germany designed by Hans Poelzig
Theo van Doesburg - “De Stijl” Theo van Doesburg, artist and writer, founder of the “De Stijl” journal; manifestoes calling for an abstract, universal art free of individual/Romantic traces (such as “expressionist” self-expression) Gerrit Rietveld, Truus Schröder House (aka: The Rietveld-Schröder House), Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1923–24, was built by Dutch architect Gerrit Rietveld for Mrs. Truus Schröder-Schräder and her 3 children.
XVI. Modern Masters Walter Gropius & Adolf Meyer, The Fagus Factory (Fagus shoe last factory), is a shoe last factory in Alfeld on the Leine, Lower Saxony, Germany (1911–13) AEG’s Turbine Factory designed by Peter Behrens (1908–09) VS Gropius and the Bauhaus
Walter Gropius & Adolf Meyer, Werkbund Model Factory, Cologne, Germany, 1914 Glass curtain wall, glass corner staircases, flat roof (recreation of the employees!), but: axial organization (classical tradition) and hence less radical than their earlier Fagus Factory; nevertheless, the model factory had a huge effect on the evolution of modern architecture of the 1920s as early example of a “machine aesthetic” that would become the Bauhaus signature Gropius and the Bauhaus
Gropius and the Bauhaus Walter Gropius, Bauhaus Manifesto, Weimar, 1923 Bauhaus: Gropius provided the new motto “Art and Technology – a New Unity” , in order to stir the Bauhaus away from mysticism and expressionism to fully embrace industry, abstraction (influenced by the abstraction and reductionism of Dutch De Stijl see above), and Constructivism (influenced by USSR, see last lecture) as well as “new media” of photography, film, advertisement Georg Muche, Haus am Horn, Weimar, 1922-23; built as model home for the 1st Bauhaus Exhibition in Weimar 1923: white cubic “modernist” single family house
Walter Gropius & Adolf Meyer, Bauhaus Dessau, Germany, 1926
Le Corbusier (1887–1965) Maison Dom-ino (Dom-ino House) (1914?) is an open floor plan structure designed by Le Corbusier supposedly in 1914–15 in reaction to WWI for the quick rebuilding of the destroyed cities. It is a concept sketch of the potential of concrete construction, that allows for mass fabrication, repetitive elements, separation of
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- Fall '08
- Ludwig Mies van der Rohe